A K-5 Curriculum for Students in the Post-Carbon Era

 

Sarah Rios

Jaime Campos

Will education be important in the post-carbon era?

What will need to be taught?

What skills need to be acquired?

We hope to provide one alternative for educating students, after the fall of empire.

 

A special thanks to:

            Guy McPherson for editing, giving advice, and opening our eyes.

            Carol Fugagli for opening her home to us, editing, and being our parent perspective.

            Hawk Fugagli for being the model student in the post carbon era and letting us dive into

            the perspective of a child.        

            Doug for being the epitome of post-carbon living education and allowing us to join his

            class.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We must accept finite disappointment, but never lose infinite hope.

-- Martin Luther King, Jr.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:                                    Page

Introduction                                                     3    

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence                          5                  

Interpersonal Intelligence                           14

Intrapersonal Intelligence                           19

Linguistic Intelligence                                   22

Mathematical/Logical Intelligence                 64

Musical Intelligence                                    107

Naturalistic Intelligence                              119

Spatial Intelligence                                      125

Glossaries                                                130

            Linguistic                                                     131

            Mathematical/Logical                               149

            Musical                                                 180

 

 

 

 

As the economy begins its downward spiral and as the price of a gallon of gasoline continues to rollercoaster, the impending doom of America, even life as we know it, is approaching. Our education system is in shambles, food prices are ever increasing, and our hopes for an oil-driven tomorrow are no more. Not even the face of hope, Barack Obama, can halt what is bound to happen.  With everything moving its course, it is only a matter of time before the idea of great nations becomes that of mere villages. Each unit of people will have to sustain themselves as their own entity. Food will be grown locally and oil-based products will no longer be available on a shelf or at the pump.  With this comes a need for those who are ready and recognize the problem to switch gears from being a consumer to being a survivalist. Only with a strong community, one comprised of individuals who barter goods and share a common cause, can any of us have a shimmer of hope.

 

Yet, with such an inevitable ending to the story that is the industrial era of this world, people do not or will not realize the problems that lie ahead. Time and time again people publish books and articles about the bubble that is about to burst. Time and time again there are signs that the foundation of our current lives are crumbling. Our governments make this seem like a simple scratch and try to cover it with a band-aid, but they don’t realize that this crack is expanding and that a Grand Canyon-sized problem is about to emerge. For those who do realize and are open to the idea of a post-carbon future, there is hope. People around the world are building small communities that will live off the land and do not rely on things we all take advantage of, including flowing electricity, grocery stores, and water coming out the tap. For this minority of people there maybe a future with a silver lining, but it will not be a Hollywood ending.

 

For the future of our world there are several factors that will still be as important as they are now. Obviously the acquisition of food, water, and shelter will be necessary but so will the education of future generations. For them education will ensure a brighter tomorrow. Yet education will not be the kind that was made to simply make robots to continue the American dream. Instead it will be about educating the young to survive, to know the basic skills that will get them through tomorrow. For most people, there won’t be a need for calculus or organic chemistry, instead basic long division and simple science will suffice. Schooling will involve a movement away from technology and will include only the essentials.

 

Thus, what follows is a basic outline of the general topics and subtopics necessary for children in the post-carbon era. Though this is an extensive list based on current, edited scholarly standards[1] it by no means is an exhaustive list. Interpretation will be based on the knowledge of the parent or “teacher” of the child or children. Also, this is simply an outline to be followed for what is currently known as kindergarten, first, second, third, fourth, and fifth grades. Traditionally these grade levels included children that were 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-9, 9-10, and 10-11 years old. Though this outline, or the technical term curriculum, only covers these ages and grade levels, it is by no means a solid boundary. Children can be taught plenty before and after. It is simply our belief that these ages hold the fundamental principles of a solid education because afterward a student will need to become a member of a hard-working society. It is our hope that before this post-carbon future happens we can include sample lessons to ease the education of the concepts covered in this curriculum. In addition, an underlying goal is to promote the spirit of inquiry. For now we wish you the best and hope that your future is bright. 

 

Though we base our curriculum off previously established standards, we organized this curriculum based on the ideas set forth by Howard Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligences. Subject areas such as math, reading, writing, music, physical education, and science had preexisting standards that we adapted to fit the ideals of a post-carbon era. These existing standards correlated well to Gardner’s multiple intelligences of mathematical/logical, linguistic, musical, and bodily-kinesthetic. Others, such as interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and visual/spatial had no preexisting standards that could be adapted and thus were created from scratch to suit the needs we felt important for that intelligence.

 

Howard Gardner’s ideas of intelligences emerged from cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner[2].  According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains."

 

Gardner stated that these essential differences "challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning. Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree, toward logical-quantitative modes as well." Gardner further argues that "a contrasting set of assumptions is more likely to be educationally effective. Students learn in ways that are identifiably distinctive. The broad spectrum of students - and perhaps the society as a whole - would be better served if disciplines could be presented in a numbers of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means."

 

For our purposes each learning style is mentioned in detail prior to each section, but a short description of them follows:

·         Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence deals with the physical experience

·         Interpersonal Intelligence deals with the social experience

·         Intrapersonal Intelligence deals with empathy and reflection of self

·         Linguistic Intelligence deals with the use of words and language

·         Mathematical/Logical Intelligence deals with numbers and logic

·         Musical Intelligence deals with music

·         Naturalist Intelligence which deals with an experience in the natural world

·         Spatial Intelligence which deals with the manipulation of objects in space

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"School is indeed a training for later life not because it teaches the 3 Rs (more or less), but because it instills the essential cultural nightmare fear of failure, envy of success, and absurdity."

- From Jules Henry's 1963 book, Culture Against Man

Howard Gardner felt that for some there is a natural sense of what their bodies can do and how they can react in physically demanding situations. In education, there are ways to work with students who possess this intelligence by allowing for a manipulation of objects or movements in class to demonstrate a piece of information. Most commonly, physical education has aimed towards educating all students in control of their bodies and manipulation of objects with their bodies. Not all students have strengths in this area but a basic knowledge base is necessary for healthy living. The following is an adaptation of standards for physical education and we feel they still possess important skills necessary for the post-carbon era.

KINDERGARTEN

Standard 1

Students demonstrate proficiency and the achievement of higher order cognitive skills necessary to enhance motor skills.
Students know and are able to do the following:

• Demonstrate progress toward the mature form of selected manipulative, locomotor and nonlocomotor skills.

1.         demonstrate a variety of manipulative skills (e.g., strike, throw, dribble, kick, roll, catch, trap, punt and volley)

2.         demonstrate locomotor skills (e.g., walk, run, hop, jump, skip, slide, gallop, and leap)

3.         demonstrate a variety of nonlocomotor skills (e.g., bend, turn, twist, balance, stretch, push, pull, rock and sway)

• Demonstrate mature form in walking and running.

1.         same as concept
• Identify fundamental movement patterns (e.g., skip, strike).

1.         recognize movement patterns of manipulative, locomotor, and nonlocomotor skills
• Identify a beginning movement vocabulary (e.g., personal space, high/low levels, fast/slow speeds,

light/heavy weights, balance, twist).

1.         demonstrate an understanding of movement concepts in physical activity (space awareness, body awareness, qualities of movement, and relationships)

       • Describe appropriate concepts to performance (e.g., change direction while running).

1.         perform movement concepts in physical activity

·         space awareness: personal space, direction, level, pathways, planes

·         body awareness: shapes, balance, body weight transfer, flight

·         qualities of movement: time, speed, force, flow

·         relationships: among body parts, objects and people with people

 

Standard 2

Students comprehend basic physical activity principles and concepts that enable them to make decisions, solve problems and to become self-directed lifelong learners who are informed physical activity consumers.
Students know and are able to do the following:

• Identify that physical activity is necessary to build good physical fitness.

1.         explain that physical fitness is the ability to work and play with energy to spare

2.         identify feelings that result from participation in fitness activities

• Identify that there are different parts of physical fitness.

1.         explain that warm-up activity and cool-down are essential parts of a fitness activity

      • Identify the different parts of physical fitness.

1.         demonstrate aerobic, muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility activities

 

Standard 3

Students exhibit a physically active lifestyle.
Students know and are able to do the following:

• Engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity.

1.         participate regularly in moderate to vigorous physical activity

2.         participate in gross motor activity of a moderate to vigorous nature
• Select and participate in activities that require some physical exertion during personal choice times.

1.         explain how some physical exertion is good for personal well-being

2.         participate in a wide variety of activities outside of physical education class
• Identify likes and dislikes connected with participation in physical activity.

1.         explain how exercise is good for one’s health

 

Standard 4

Students achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.

Students know and are able to do the following:

• Sustain moderate to vigorous physical activity for short periods of time.

1.         same as concept
• Identify the physiological signs (e.g., fast heart rate, increased breathing) of moderate physical activity.

1.         recognize that moderate physical activity increases heart rate and breathing rate

Standard 5

Students develop self-initiated behaviors that promote effective personal and social interactions in physical activity settings.

Students know and are able to do the following:

• Apply, with teacher reinforcement, classrooms rules and procedures and safe practices.

1.         follow identified rules and procedures

2.         work in a group setting without interfering with others

3.         handle and care for equipment safely and responsibly

• Share space and equipment with others.

1.         take turns using a piece of equipment

2.         participate in physical activity, respecting others’ personal space

 

Standard 6

Students demonstrate understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings.

Students know and are able to do the following:

• Interact positively with students in class regardless of personal differences (e.g., race, gender, disability).

1.         participate with peers without regard to personal differences (e.g., race, gender, ability)

• Demonstrate cooperation with others in group tasks.

1.         demonstrate willingness to participate in all group activities

2.         explain how sharing with others can lead to positive feelings (e.g., acceptance, belonging to the group)

 

Standard 7

Students develop behavioral skills (self-management skills) essential to maintaining a physically active lifestyle.

Students know and are able to do the following:

• Engage in physical activities

1.         explain that activity is good for one’s health

2.         identify feelings that result from participation in physical activities

3.         participate in a variety of activities that require varying degrees of physical exertion

(e.g., large group games, aerobic activities, fine motor)

• Try new movement activities and skills.

1.                  participate in a wide variety of physical activities

 

 

FIRST TO THIRD GRADE

 

Standard 1

Students demonstrate proficiency and the achievement of higher order cognitive skills necessary to enhance motor skills.
Students know and are able to do the following:
NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

• Demonstrate mature form in all locomotor patterns and selected manipulative and nonlocomotor skills.

1.         perform all eight locomotor skills with mature form (walk, run, hop, jump, skip, slide, gallop and leap)

2.         perform movement skills to a rhythm

• Adapt a skill area (e.g., dribbling, passing, dance sequence) to the demands of a game-like situation.

1.         demonstrate the ability to adapt movement skills to changing environmental conditions and expectations (e.g., partner needs for force production, tossing a ball to a moving partner, rising and sinking while twisting, using different rhythms)

2.         combine a variety of physical activities (e.g., various travel patterns in relation to music,   

locomotor and  nonlocomotor combinations

      • Demonstrate beginning skills of a few specialized movement forms.

1.                  dribble and pass a variety of objects to self and around stationary objects (hands, feet

and equipment)

2.         throw and kick using mature form

3.         strike a ball repeatedly with hand or object

4.         toss and catch a ball alone or with a partner
       • Combine movement skills in applied settings.

1.         demonstrate control in traveling activities, weight bearing and balance activities on a

variety of body parts

2.         demonstrate skills of chasing, fleeing, dodging to avoid others
       • Apply critical elements to improve personal performance in fundamental and selected specialized

          movement skills.

1.         demonstrate critical elements of a fundamental skill (e.g., throwing, kicking, striking)

2.         use concepts of space, effort, and relationships that vary the quality of movement
      • Use critical elements of fundamental and specialized movement skills to provide feedback to

  others.

1.         use feedback to improve personal performance

2.         recognize the critical elements of a fundamental movement or skill performed by a fellow student and provide feedback to that student

• Apply concepts that impact the quality of increasingly complex movement performance (e.g., maintaining a wide base of support in a balance activity).

1.         understand that appropriate practice improves performance (e.g., a ball must be passed in front of a moving player; the lower the center of gravity, the more stable an object)

 

Standard 2

Students comprehend basic physical activity principles and concepts that enable them to make decisions, solve problems and to become self-directed lifelong learners who are informed physical activity consumers.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

• Identify several activities related to each component of health-related physical fitness.

1.         identify the components of health-related physical fitness (e.g., cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition)

2.         identify and demonstrate several activities related to each component of physical fitness

• Explain that muscles produce movement and begin to identify muscles.

1.         name and locate large muscle groups

2.         demonstrate activities that utilize specific muscle groups
• Demonstrate how to perform physical fitness tests.

1.         demonstrate correct form when performing physical fitness activities

 

Standard 3

Students exhibit a physically active lifestyle.
Students know and are able to do the following:
NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

      • Select and participate regularly in physical activities for the purpose of improving skill and health.

              1.       participate regularly in physical activity for the purpose of improving skill performance

          2.        participate regularly in physical activity for the purpose of developing a healthy lifestyle

    • Identify the benefits derived from regular physical activity.

1.         describe health benefits that result from regular and appropriate participation in physical activity

2.         identify benefits of at least one activity they regularly participate in

    • Identify several moderate to vigorous physical activities that provide personal pleasure.

            1.         same as concept

 

Standard 4

Students achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
Students know and are able to do the following:
NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

  • Accomplish the following

1.         identify the components of health-related physical fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition)

2.         identify and demonstrate several activities related to each component of physical fitness

• Participate regularly in physical activity for the purpose of improving physical fitness (goal setting).

1.                  engage in appropriate physical activity that results in the improvement of health-related

physical fitness

 

Standard 5

Students develop self-initiated behaviors that promote effective personal and social interactions in physical activity settings.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

• Follow, with few reminders, activity-specific rules, procedures and etiquette.

1.         respond positively to an occasional reminder about a rule/infraction

2.         use expected behaviors in physical activity settings

      • Utilize safety principles in activity situations.

1.         stop activity immediately at the signal to do so

2.         demonstrate and use equipment safely and responsibly

3.         use the rules of physical education on the playground
• Work cooperatively and productively with a partner or small group.

1.         use respect during all physical activity

2.         work cooperatively with another to complete an assigned task
• Work independently and on-task for short periods of time.

1.         demonstrate specific teacher-directed skills until a signal is given to end task

2.         demonstrate the ability to share equipment with other students before repeating a turn
• Interact with peers while participating in group activities.

1.         treat others with respect during physical activity

2.         resolve conflicts in socially acceptable ways

 

Standard 6

Students demonstrate understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

      • Participate in multicultural physical activities.

1.         identify one’s own cultural/ethnic roots

2.         apply variations in activities and games enjoyed in classmates’ homes and

Neighborhood

     • Explain the attributes that individuals with differences can bring to group activities.

1.         display consideration of others’ abilities in physical activity settings

• Describe differences and similarities among the activities of a variety of national, cultural and ethnic backgrounds. 

1.                  share with peers an activity, dance or game in which he/she has participated with family

or friends

 

Standard 7

Students develop behavioral skills (self-management skills) essential to maintaining a physically active lifestyle.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

       • Practice activities to increase skill and fitness competence (goal setting).

1.         select activities that are personally challenging and rewarding

2.         explain how repeated practice will lead to skill and fitness success

3.         explain how gained competence provides increased enjoyment in movement and fitness

Activities

 

FOURTH TO FIFTH GRADE

 

Standard 1

Students demonstrate proficiency and the achievement of higher order cognitive skills necessary to enhance motor skills.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

• Demonstrate competence in a variety of movement forms.

1.         throw, catch, strike and kick using mature form in a variety of physical activity settings

2.         dribble and pass a variety of objects to a stationary target/receiver (e.g., hands, feet, equipment)

            3.         balance with control on a variety of objects

4.         transfer weight from feet to hand at fast and slow speeds, using large extensions (e.g., mule kick, handstand, cartwheel)

5.         travel, changing speeds and directions, in response to a variety of rhythms

• Apply more advanced movement and game strategies.

1.         use basic offensive and defensive strategies in small group games

• Identify the critical elements of more advanced movement skills.

1.         identify the critical elements of a basic movement made by a fellow student and provide feedback to that student

• Identify the characteristics of highly skilled performance in a few movement forms.

1.         identify the characteristics of a highly skilled performer in a few movement forms

• Apply more advanced discipline-specific knowledge (e.g., conditioning and fitness in a selected sport).

1.         demonstrate specialized movement skills

 

Standard 2

Students comprehend basic physical activity principles and concepts that enable them to make decisions, solve problems and to become self-directed lifelong learners who are informed physical activity consumers.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

     • Describe the relationship between a healthy lifestyle and feeling good.

1.         give examples of the benefits derived from regular physical activity

            2.         identify several moderate to vigorous physical activities that provide personal pleasure

• Apply basic principles of training to improve physical fitness.

1.         engage in appropriate activity that results in the development of muscular strength and endurance

2.         apply the concepts that impact the quality of physical fitness

• Describe physiological indicators of exercise during and after physical activity.

1.         demonstrate ability to calculate heart rate

2.         monitor intensity of exercise (e.g., heart rate, respiration, body temperature)

 

Standard 3

Students exhibit a physically active lifestyle.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

• Participate regularly in health-enhancing physical activities to accomplish personal health goals.

1.         participate regularly in a physical activity that develops a healthy lifestyle

      2.         describe health benefits that result from regular and appropriate participation in

physical activity

• Participate in a variety of physical activities of personal interest.

1.         identify at least one enjoyable activity he/she participates in daily (formal or informal)

            2.         identify opportunities for more formal participation in physical activities in the

community

3.         design games, gymnastics and dance sequences based on personal interests

 

Standard 4

Students achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

• Accomplish the following:

1.         engage in appropriate activities that result in the development of muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, appropriate body composition, and aerobic endurance

• Apply basic principles of training to improve or maintain health-related physical fitness.

1.         participate in moderate to vigorous physical activities at least four days per week

2.         accumulate 30-60 minutes of moderate activity per day at least four days per week

3.         maintain continuous aerobic activity for a specified time and activity (e.g., 10 minutes or more)

      4.         demonstrate how to balance food intake with physical activity

 

Standard 5

Students develop self-initiated behaviors that promote effective personal and social interactions in physical activity settings.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

      • Explain the influence of peer pressure in physical activity settings.

1.         explain the difference between acts of courage and reckless acts

            2.         demonstrate responsibility when teaching or learning an activity with a partner or small

                        group
      • Identify potential consequences when confronted with a behavior choice.

            1.         act in a safe manner during physical activity

      • Cooperate with a group to achieve group goals in competitive as well as cooperative settings.

1.         work independently and on task for partner, small or large group activities

            2.         participate in establishing rules and procedures that are safe and effective for specific

                        activities

      • Identify the social benefits of participation in physical activity.

1.         explain the difference between compliance and noncompliance of game rules and demonstrate compliance

            2.         identify one’s own performance problems without blaming others

           

Standard 6

Students demonstrate understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

      • Explain the role of sports, games and dance in modern culture.

1.         explain the validity of games and activities reflecting one’s own and others’ heritage

      • Identify behaviors that are supportive and inclusive in physical activity settings.

1.         demonstrate fairness in games and activities

            2.         demonstrate acceptance of the skills and abilities of others through verbal and

                        nonverbal behavior

      • Participate in physical activities with others regardless of diversity and ability.

1.         identify the attributes that individual differences can bring to group activities

 

Standard 7

Students develop behavioral skills (self-management skills) essential to maintaining a physically active lifestyle.
Students know and are able to do the following:

NOTE: All levels are built upon previous levels.

    • Establish personal physical activity goals.

1.         explain how appropriate practice improves performance

2.         use information from internal (self-evaluation) and external sources to set physical

activity goals to improve performances

• Explore a variety of new physical activities for personal interest.

            1.         identify opportunities for participation in physical activity in the school

       • Participate in new and challenging activities.

1.         participate in a variety of physical activities, both in and out of school, based upon individual interests and capabilities

 

 

 

 

Interpersonal Intelligence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We want one class to have a liberal education. We want another class, a very much larger class of necessity, to forgo the privilege of a liberal education and fit themselves to perform specific difficult
manual tasks."

- President Woodrow Wilson, in a speech to businessmen

 

 

Howard Gardner included the idea of an interpersonal intelligence into his theories in order to include those students who have the knack for understanding others and interacting with them. It was his thought that there are people who are skilled at assessing emotions, desires, intentions, and motivations of others that around them. Often a person with strong interpersonal skills is able to communicate verbally effectively, analyze situations from different perspectives, create relationships with others that are positive, and be able to resolve conflicts among a group of people.

 

In a post carbon era, these skills would be essential in maintaining a level of empathy to others in order to promote a good life in difficult times. In addition, team work and the skills associated to a good team will be main factors in ensuring proper function of a community. What follows are categories we feel will be important in educating children in regards to the interpersonal intelligence.

 

Team Work: These skills will attempt to teach students to work together with others as one unit towards a goal.

 

Empathy:  The ability to feel compassion to those around them and, as an extension, to realize and connect the emotions others are feeling to a situation in that person’s life.

 

Building Relationships: The ability to recognize the importance of having others in ones lives and working towards building and maintaining these relationships.

 

KINDERGARTEN

 

Team Work:

1.      Knows what a team is

2.      Understands that the basic set up of a team is several people working together

3.      Is able to identify the leader of a team

 

Empathy:

1.      Identify healthy ways to handle feelings.

2.      Is able to identify the basic emotions others may have (for example, “mom is happy”).

 

Building Relationships:

1.      Recognize adults in familiar environments.

2.    Cooperate in games with familiar adults.

3.    Seek attention of familiar adults.

4.      Recognize members of immediate family.

5.      Communicate with members of immediate family.

6.      Name members of immediate family

7.      Show awareness of family roles (for example, parents, siblings, extended family).

 

 

 

 

 

FIRST GRADE

 

Team Work:

1.      Can take on the role of leader and follower

2.      Can set goals or incorporate ideas when making a goal for the group

3.      Is able to identify progress in a group project or goal

 

Empathy:

1.      Once a family members feeling is identified can recognize what results in the opposite feeling (for example, if mom is sad and hugs make her happy, give her a hug).

2.      Is able to be sensitive to others feelings

 

Building Relationships:

1.      Use cooperative play responses with peers.

2.    Play alone contentedly, but like to be near adults.

3.    Initiate own play activities.

4.    Differentiate among types of relationships (for example, friends, family, classmates, community

       members).

 

SECOND GRADE

 

Team Work:

1.      Identify various ways to resolve conflict using positive behavior.

2.      Knows how to voice a disapproval with a leaders idea in such a way that will not result in conflict.

 

Empathy:

1.      Interact appropriately with peers and other children (for example, helps others, shows concern, is friendly, shares with others).

 

Building Relationships:

1.      Initiate and continue interaction play or activities with peers.

2.      Wait for interaction with adults or peers.

3.      Wait for turn to play with adult present.

4.      Wait with peers without adult present.

5.      Interact appropriately with various familiar adults (for example, tells the adult about a new discovery, responds appropriately to greeting from another adult).

 

THIRD GRADE

 

Team Work:

1.      Initiate positive actions to resolve conflict (for example, identifies the conflict, deals with feelings).

2.      Use words and brief discussions to resolve conflicts (for example, gives friends choices, uses words to express feelings).

 

 

 

Empathy:

1.      Use appropriate behaviors and words to deal with anger (for example, stops and thinks, leaves the immediate location, gets assistance).

 

Building Relationships:

1.      Enter into appropriate activities with unfamiliar peers or adults.

2.      Identify the skills needed to be a responsible friend and family member (for example, doing chores and helping others).

3.      Demonstrate various ways of communicating care and consideration of others (for example, sharing and saying “please” and “thank you”).

4.      Conduct self during interactions in ways that are appropriate for the relationship (for example, does not hug strangers, listens attentively to a instructor).

5.      Use actions of others as social cues (for example, waits to start eating until all have been served, lets others go first when waiting in line).

 

FOURTH GRADE

 

Team Work:

1.     Interact acceptably with others within the course of social, occupational, and community living.

2.     Use discussion and compromise to resolve conflicts (for example, pros and cons of plan to    

       resolve problem, cause of conflict, and different points of view).

 

Empathy:

1.      Knows when it is appropriate to be solemn (for example, during a death or funeral).

 

Building Relationships:

1.      Initiate interactions with family, friends, peers, and adults (for example, says “Hello,” introduces self, asks another’s name, explains hobbies and interests).

2.      Use appropriate techniques to invite someone to join a group (for example, asks if person wants to play).

3.      Identify the importance of demonstrating consideration of others in physical activity settings.

4.      Use appropriate language to conduct social interactions including greetings, apologies, and introductions.

 

FIFTH GRADE

 

Team Work:

1.      Use appropriate interpersonal communication skills when working in a group (for example, checks for understanding, expresses opinions, takes turns, accepts criticisms, gives feedback).

2.      Seek help and use suggestions when unable to resolve conflicts (for example, when afraid, when angry, when peer won’t cooperate, when adult help is needed).

 

Empathy:

1.       Identify what makes a positive relationship with another person (for example, being friendly, making each other laugh, complimenting each other).

2.      Identify what makes a harmful relationship with another person (for example, physically hurting the other, not sharing with others, arguing with each other).

 

 

Building Relationships:

1.      Use behaviors that represent active listening (for example, looks at person while speaking, responds to questions, is attentive while another is speaking).

2.      Use appropriate nonverbal communications to relay messages to others (for example, body language, winking, waving).

3.      Respond appropriately to humor (for example, laughs at jokes, tells jokes, avoids humor that hurts others).

 

 

 

 

 

Intrapersonal Intelligence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Ninety-nine [students] out of a hundred are automata, careful to walk in prescribed paths, careful to follow the prescribed custom. This is not an accident but the result of substantial education, which, scientifically defined, is the subsumption of the individual.... The great purpose of school can be
realized better in dark, airless, ugly places .... It is to master the physical self, to transcend the beauty of nature. School should develop the power to withdraw from the natural world."

- William Torrey Harrison, commissioner of education in the U.S. between 1889 and 1906 (in
his 1906 book The Philosophy of Education):

Howard Gardner defined the Intrapersonal Intelligence as “the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations”. 

There are no established curriculums for this intelligence, and here we describe a basic outline of the essentials to help your student develop healthy methods of dealing with personal problems and learning to do self-evaluation and introspection.

Methods like yoga can be also used to teach introspection and a physical way of focusing the mind and the body.  Looking for someone in your community who can teach yoga to you and your students would be an excellent activity for your child to learn how to focus their mind and body.

Meditation: Here students will learn to take time from their day to sit in a quiet peaceful place that is most comfortable to the child and sit in silence and learn to reflect on their thoughts and feelings. In doing so, students will be able to understand what is truly important in their lives and look past the situations that make them upset or sad.

Journal Writing: Here students will develop their writing skills and discover means of expressing themselves and documenting their feelings. These entries may begin as pictures and later progress to written entries. This encourages students to write down their thoughts in order to provoke self-reflection and institute a place where they can confide their feelings without risk of punishment.

Observation:  Here students will learn to observe different situations and draw conclusions about their place in the family, community and world.

KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE

Meditation:

1.      Introduce learning how to sit still while listening to calming music or even sitting in silence for a prescribed length of time. Making this exercise a weekly occurrence.

2.      Having the student chose a calm and comforting place to have the weekly meditation sessions (can be outdoors or indoors).

3.      Allowing the child to identify their favorite place

4.      Encouraging the child to go to their favorite place when they are sad, angry, or want time to themselves

 

Journal Writing:

1.      Have student create his or her own journal out of items they find around them (for example, rocks, sticks, etc).

2.      Have them draw or write in their journal to express their feelings about what makes them happy, sad, irritated, hopeful, etc.

 

Observation:

1.      Ask your student to define who they think they are in terms of their family and community. These can be discussed verbally with an adult.

2.      Students can express their answers and observations through drawings, songs, dance or whatever form is appropriate.

 

SECOND TO THIRD GRADE

Meditation: 

1.      Continue to encourage meditation and begin to increase it to 2-3 times a week.

 

Journal Writing:

1.      Students should begin to use a combination of drawings and sentences to express their feeling. 

2.      Students should be encouraged to begin writing short narratives or stories to describe their daily lives.

 

Observation:

1.      Continue to have the students think about their place in the community

2.      Have them describe what they feel are their roles and responsibilities within their families and communities

 

FOURTH TO FIFTH GRADE

Meditation: 

1.      Continue to encourage meditation and begin to increase it to 3-4 times a week.

2.      If the student becomes accustomed to the meditation the student can be encouraged to incorporate it as part of their daily routine

 

Journal Writing:

1.      Students should be writing journal entries on a daily basis

2.      Students should continue to write short narratives or stories to describe their daily lives.

 

Observation:

1.      Continue to have the students think about their place in the community

2.      Have them describe what they feel are their roles and responsibilities within their families and communities

 

Linguistic Intelligence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"In our dreams ... people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hands. The present educational conventions [intellectual and character development] fade from our minds, and unhampered by tradition we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive folk. We shall not try to make these people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning or men of science. We have not to raise up from among them authors, educators, poets or men of letters. We shall not search for embryo great artists, painters, musicians, nor lawyers, doctors, preachers, politicians, statesmen, of whom we have ample supply. The task we set before ourselves is very simple ... we will organize children ... and teach them to do in a perfect way the things their fathers and mothers are doing in an imperfect way."

- Rockefeller Education Board, a major advocate of compulsory public education, in a 1906
statement:

The linguistic intelligence is among Howard Gardners original six intelligences and incompasses spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages and the ability to use language to accomplish a goal.  The ability to communicate, read, and write will still be important skills to have during a post carbon era.. The curriculum for the Linguistic  Intelligence is divided into three different sections: Writing, Reading, and Language Arts. The following curriculum was adapted from the TUSD Standards.

 

* See glossery for bolded terms

 

KINDERGARTEN

Writing Process

Research has established the major steps of the writing process. These steps are identified in the five concepts, each supported with specific performance objectives. While all steps are needed and used by effective writers as they compose text, different skills may be emphasized in individual assignments. These steps may be used recursively as a piece moves toward completion. Throughout the process, students should reflect on their own writing skills, set goals, and evaluate their own progress.

 

Writing Elements
This section focuses on the elements of effective writing. Good writing instruction incorporates multiple performance objectives into an integrated experience of learning for the student. The order of the concepts and performance objectives is not intended to indicate a progression or hierarchy for writing instruction. Instructional activities may focus on just one concept or many.

 

Writing Applications
Writing skills particular to the applications listed here may be taught across the curriculum, although some applications may lend themselves more readily to specific content areas. It is imperative that students write in all content areas in order to increase their communication skills, and ultimately to improve their understanding of content area concepts. When appropriate, other content standards are referenced to show interdisciplinary connections.

Writing Process:

 Prewriting

• Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

1.         Generate ideas through class discussion.

               2.      Draw a picture about ideas generated through class discussion.

Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

              1.       Communicate by drawing, telling, or writing for a purpose.  

              2.       Create a group draft, scripted by the teacher.

 

 

Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

1.         Reread original draft scripted by teacher or individual.

2.         Add additional details with prompting.

 Editing
      Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

1.         Review the draft for errors in conventions, with prompting.

 Publishing
      Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

 1.        Share a finished piece of writing.

 

Writing Elements:
Ideas and Content

• Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

1.         Use pictures that convey meaning.

               2.      Use pictures with imitative text (writing that mimics another piece), letters, or

                        recognizable words to convey meaning.

3.         Use labels, captions, or picture descriptors to expand meaning.

Organization

• Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

1.         Show a clear sense of coordination between text and pictures (e.g., a reader can readily see that they go together).

2.         Consistently write left to right and top to bottom.

3.         Space appropriately between words with some degree of accuracy.

Voice

• Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

 1.        Create pictures or text with distinctive personal style and originality.

Word Choice

• Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

1.         Select labels, captions, or descriptors to enhance pictures.

2.         Use words, labels, or short phrases that clearly go with picture text.

 

 

 

Sentence Fluency

• Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
      1.         Attempt simple sentences (some may be fragments).

 

Conventions

• Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

 1.        Write the 26 letters of the alphabet in:
a. lower case
b. upper case

 2.        Distinguish between upper and lower case letters.

 3.        Use capital letters to begin “important” words, although may be inconsistent or

experimental.

 4.        Use spaces between words.

 5.        Write left to right and top to bottom.

 6.        Use punctuation in writing, although may be inconsistent or experimental.

 7.        Use knowledge of letter sound relationship to spell simple words with some consonants and few vowels (e.g., I lik t d nts. – I like to draw knights.)

 8.        Use resources (word wall) to spell correctly.

 9.        Write own name on personal work.

 

Writing Applications:
 Expressive

• Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

 1.        Create narratives by drawing and dictating.

 2.        Participate in writing simple poetry, rhymes, songs, or chants.

Expository

• Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

 1.        Participate in creating expository texts (e.g., labels, lists, observations, journals, summaries) through drawing or writing.

Functional

• Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
        1.       Participate in writing a variety of functional text (e.g., classroom rules, letters,

experiments, recipes,          notes/messages, labels, directions, posters, graphs/tables).

 2.        Participate in writing communications, with teacher as scribe, including:

a.                  friendly letters

b.                  thank-you notes

Literary Response

• Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

 1.        Participate in a group discussion, based on a literature selection, that identifies the:

a.  character(s)

b.  setting

c.  sequence of events

2.         Participate in a group discussion in response to a given piece of literature that connects:

a.  text to self (personal connection)

b.  text to world (social connection)

c.  text to text (compare within multiple texts)

Research

• Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

 1.        Participate in creating a simple class report where the teacher is the scribe.

 

FIRST GRADE

Writing Process:

Prewriting

      • Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

 1.        Generate ideas through prewriting activities (e.g., brainstorming, webbing, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion).

 2.        Draw a picture or storyboard about ideas generated.

 3.        Organize ideas using simple webs, maps, or lists.

 4.        Discuss the purpose for a writing piece.

 5.        Discuss who the intended audience of a writing piece will be.

Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

 1.        Write a draft (e.g., story, caption, letter, observations, message).

Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

 1.        Reread original draft for clarity. 

 2.        Add additional details with prompting.

 Editing
      Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

1.         Review the draft for errors in conventions, with prompting.

Publishing
      Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

 1.        Rewrite and illustrate selected pieces of writing for sharing with intended audience.

 2.        Write legibly.

 

Writing Elements:
Ideas and Content

• Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

1.         Write stand-alone text that expresses a clear message.

2.         Incorporate details in pictures and text.

 Organization

• Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together

1.         Demonstrate sequencing or patterning in written text or storyboards.

2.         Show a sense of beginning (e.g., This is a story of…, One day…,  My  favorite  food…).

3.         Write multiple sentences in an order that supports a main idea or story.

   Voice

• Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

1.         Create pictures and text that is expressive, individualistic, engaging, and lively.

 Word Choice

• Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

 1.        Select words that convey a clear, general meaning.

 2.        Use a variety of words, even if not spelled correctly, to convey the intended message.

 3.        Use expressive or descriptive phrases and short sentences, beyond one- or two-word

labels.

Sentence Fluency

• Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
      1.         Write simple sentences.

Conventions

• Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

1.         Incorporate conventions into own text, including:

a.      spacing between words

b.      spacing between lines

c.      consistent left-right and up-down orientation

d.      placement of title

2.         Use capital letters correctly for:

a.      the pronoun I

b.      the beginning of a sentence

c.      names

3.         Punctuate endings of sentences using:

a.      periods

b.      question marks

c.      exclamation points

4.         Spell high-frequency words (These are the most common words in English, ranked in frequency order. correctly.)

5.         Use common spelling patterns (i.e., onset and rimes, word families, and simple CVC

words (Consonant Vowel Consonant)) to spell words correctly.

6.         Use basic phonetic spelling of unfamiliar words to create readable text.

7.         Use resources (e.g., word wall, dictionaries) to spell correctly.

8.         Use subject /verb agreement in simple sentences.

9.         Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

a.      nouns

b.      action verbs

10.       Write own name on personal work.

 

Writing Applications:
Expressive

• Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

1.         Write a narrative that includes:

a.      a main idea based on real or imagined events

b.      character(s)

c.      a sequence of events

2.         Participate in writing simple poetry, rhymes, songs, or chants.

Expository

• Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

1.         Create expository texts (e.g., labels, lists, observations, journals) through drawing and/or writing.

2.         Participate in creating simple summaries from informational texts, graphs, tables, or maps.

 Functional

• Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
        1.       Write a variety of functional text (e.g., classroom rules, letters, experiments, recipes,

notes/messages, labels, directions, posters, graphs/tables).

2.         Participate in writing communications, with teacher as scribe, including

a.      friendly letters

b.      thank-you notes

 

Literary Response

• Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

1.         Write a response to a literature selection that identifies the:

a.      character(s)

b.      setting

c.      sequence of events

d.                  main idea

2.         Participate in a group response to a given piece of literature that connects:

a.      text to self (personal connection)

b.      text to world (social connection)

c.      text to text (compare within multiple texts)

Research

• Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

1.                  Write a simple report with a title and three facts, using informational sources.

 

SECOND GRADE

Writing Process

Prewriting

      • Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

1.         Generate ideas through prewriting activities (e.g., brainstorming, webbing, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion).

2.         Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate) of a writing piece.

3.         Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

4.         Maintain a record (e.g., list, picture, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

1.         Write a draft with supporting details.

2.         Organize details into a logical sequence.

Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what
you want it to say?)

1.         Reread original draft for clarity.

2.         Add additional relevant details for audience understanding.

3.         Evaluate the draft for use of one or more writing elements, with the assistance of teacher, peer, checklist, or rubric.

Editing
      Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

1.         Review the draft for errors in conventions.

2.         Use simple resources (e.g., word walls, primary dictionaries) to correct conventions.

Publishing
      Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

1.         Rewrite and illustrate selected pieces of writing for sharing with intended audience.

2.         Write legibly.

 

Writing Elements
Ideas and Content

• Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

1.         Write stand-alone text that expresses a clear message.

2.         Incorporate relevant details that give the text interest.

Organization

• Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

1.         Organize content in a selected format (e.g., friendly letter, narrative, expository text).

2.         Use beginning and concluding statements (other than simply “The End”) in text.

3.         Use signal words (e.g., first, second, third; 1, 2, 3) to indicate the order of events or

ideas.

4.         Use transitional words and phrases (e.g., next, then, so, but, while, after that, because) to connect ideas.

5.         Write multiple sentences that support a topic.

Voice

• Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal,
depending on the audience and purpose.

1.         Show awareness of the audience through word choice and style.

2.         Write text that is expressive, individualistic, engaging, and lively.

 

Word Choice

• Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

1.               Select words that convey the intended meaning and create a picture in the reader’s

mind.

2.         Use a variety of words, even if not spelled correctly, to convey the intended message.

3.         Use expressive or descriptive phrases and short sentences, beyond one- or two-word

labels.

 

Sentence Fluency

• Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
      1.         Write simple sentences.

2.         Write sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.

3.         Use a variety of sentence beginnings and lengths

Conventions

• Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

1.         Use capital letters for:

a.      the pronoun I

b.      the beginning of a sentence

c.      proper nouns (i.e., names, days, months)

2.         Punctuate endings of sentences using:

a.      periods

b.      question marks

c.      exclamation points

3.         Use commas to punctuate:

a.      items in a series

b.      greetings and closings of letters

c.      dates

4.         Use a colon to punctuate time.

5.         Use apostrophes to correctly punctuate contractions.

6.         Spell high frequency words correctly.

7.         Use common spelling patterns/ generalizations, including:

a.      word families

b.      simple CVC words

c.      regular plurals

d.      simple prefixes

e.      simple suffixes

8.         Use phonetic spelling and syllabication to create readable text.

9.         Use resources (e.g., environmental print, word walls, dictionaries) to spell correctly.

10.  Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

a.      nouns

b.      action verbs

c.      personal pronouns

d.      adjectives

11.  Use subject/verb agreement in simple sentences.

12.  Write own name on personal work.

 

Writing Applications

Expressive

• Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

1.         Write a narrative that includes:

a.      a main idea based on real or imagined events

b.      character(s)

c.      a sequence of events

2.         Write simple poetry, rhymes, or chants.

Expository

• Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

1.         Write expository texts (e.g., labels, lists, observations, journals).

2.         Participate in creating simple summaries from informational texts, graphs, tables, or maps.

Functional

• Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.

1.         Write a variety of functional text (e.g., classroom rules, letters, experiments, recipes, notes/messages, labels, directions, posters, graphs/tables).

2.         Write communications, including:

a.      friendly letters

b.      thank-you notes

Literary Response

• Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

1.         Write a response to a literature selection identifies the:

a.      character(s)

b.      setting

c.      sequence of events

d.      main idea

e.      problem/solution

               2.      Write a response to a literature selection that connects:

a.      text to self (personal connection)

b.      text to world (social connection)

c.                  text to text (compare within multiple texts)

Research

• Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

1.         Locate and use informational sources to write a simple report that includes:

a.      a title

b.                  a main idea

c.                  supporting details

THIRD GRADE

Writing Process

Prewriting

      • Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

1.         Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizer, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion, printed material).

2.         Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade) of a

            writing piece.

3.         Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

4.         Use organizational strategies (e.g., graphic organizer, KWL chart, log) to plan writing.

5.         Maintain a record (e.g., list, pictures, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

6.         Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

1.         Use a prewriting plan to develop a draft with main idea(s) and supporting details.

2.         Organize writing into a logical sequence that is clear to the audience.

Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

1.         Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency.

2.         Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

3.         Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs to clarify the meaning of the draft.

4.         Use a combination of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.

5.         Modify word choice appropriate to the application in order to enhance the writing.

6.         Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.

7.         Use resources and reference materials to select more precise vocabulary.

Editing
      Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

1.         Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft..Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct conventions.

2.         Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions, although may be

            inconsistent or          experimental.

3.         Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the

               draft.

Publishing
      Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

1.         Prepare writing in a format (e.g., oral presentation, manuscript, multimedia) appropriate to audience and purpose.

2.         Share the writing with the intended audience.

3.         Use margins and spacing to enhance the final product.

4.         Write legibly.

 

Writing Elements
 Ideas and Content

• Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

1.         Express ideas that are clear and directly related to the topic.

2.         Provide content and selected details that are well-suited to audience and purpose.

3.         Use relevant details to provide adequate support for the ideas.

Organization

• Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

1.         Organize content in a selected format. (e.g., friendly letter, narrative, expository text).

2.         Create a beginning that captures the reader’s interest. 

3.         Place details appropriately to support the main idea.

4.         Use transitional words and phrases (e.g., next, then, so, but, while, after that, because)

to connect ideas.

5.         Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.

6.         Construct a paragraph that groups sentences around a topic.

 

Voice

• Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

1.         Show awareness of the audience through word choice and style.

2.         Convey a sense of originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to topic and

type of writing.

Word Choice

• Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

1.                  Use a variety of specific and accurate words that effectively convey the intended

message.

2.         Use descriptive words and phrases that energize the writing.

3.         Apply vocabulary and/or terminology appropriate to the type of writing.

4.         Use literal and figurative language in a variety of ways (e.g., imitating, creating new words, rhyming), although may be inconsistent or experimental.

 Sentence Fluency

• Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
        1.       Write simple and compound sentences.

2.         Write sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.

3.         Vary sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.

Conventions

• Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

1.         Use capital letters for:

a.      proper nouns (i.e., names, days, months)

b.      titles

c.      names of places

d.      abbreviations

e.      literary titles (i.e., book, story, poem)

2.         Punctuate endings of sentences using:

a.      periods

b.      question marks

c.      exclamation points

3.         Use commas to punctuate:

a.      items in a series

b.      greetings and closings of letters

c.      dates

4.         Use quotation marks to punctuate dialogue, although may be inconsistent or

               experimental.

5.         Use a colon to punctuate time.

6.         Use apostrophes to punctuate:

a.      contractions

b.      singular possessive

7.         Spell high-frequency words correctly.

8.         Use common spelling patterns/generalizations to spell words correctly, including:

a.      word families

b.      regular plurals

c.   r-controlled

d.      diphthong

e.      consonant digraphs

f.   CVC words

g.      CCVC words

h.       CVCC words

i.    affixes

9.    Spell simple homonyms correctly in context.

10.  Use resources (e.g., dictionaries, word walls) to spell correctly.

11.  Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

a. nouns

a.      action verbs

b.      personal pronouns

c.      adjectives

12.  Use subject/verb agreement in simple sentences.

 

Writing Applications
Expressive

• Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

1.                  Write a narrative based on imagined or real events, observations, or memories that

includes:

a.      characters

b.      setting

c.      plot

d.      sensory details

e.      clear language

f.   logical sequence of events

2.         Write in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., poetry, skit) that may employ:

a.      figurative language

b.      rhythm

c.      dialogue

d.      characterization

e.      a plot

f.   appropriate format

Expository

• Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

 1.        Record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, map labels and legends) related to the topic.

 2.        Write an expository paragraph that contains:

a.      a topic sentence

b.      supporting details

c.      relevant information

3.        Write in a variety of expository forms (e.g., summary, newspaper article, reflective paper, log, journal).

Functional

• Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
       1.        Write communications, including:

a.      thank-you notes

b.      friendly letters

c.      formal letters

d.      messages

e.      invitations

2.         Address an envelope for correspondence that includes:

a.      an appropriate return address

b.      an appropriate recipient address

Persuasive

• Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.

1.      Write persuasive text (e.g., advertisement, paragraph) that attempts to influence the reader.

Literary Response

• Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

1.         Write a reflection to a literature selection (e.g., journal entry, book review).

2.         Write a book report or review that may identify the:

a.      main idea

b.      character(s)

c.                  setting

d.      sequence of events

e.      problem/solution

3.         Write a response to a literature selection that connects:

a.      text to self (personal connection)

b.      text to world (social connection)

c.      text to text (compare within multiple texts)

Research

• Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

1.         Paraphrase information from at least one source (e.g., Internet, reference materials).

2.         Organize notes in a meaningful sequence.

3.         Write an informational report that includes main ideas and relevant details.

 

FOURTH GRADE

Writing Process

Prewriting

      • Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

1.         Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizer, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion, printed material).

2.         Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade) of an intended writing piece.

3.         Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

4.         Use organizational strategies (e.g., graphic organizer, KWL chart, log) to plan writing.

5.         Maintain a record (e.g., list, pictures, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

6.         Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

1.         Use a prewriting plan to develop a draft with main idea(s) and supporting details.

2.         Organize writing into a logical sequence that is clear to the audience.

Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?

1.         Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency. 

2.         Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

3.         Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs to clarify the meaning of the draft.

4.         Use a combination of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.

5.         Modify word choice appropriate to the application in order to enhance the writing.

6.         Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.

7.         Use resources and reference materials to select more precise vocabulary.

Editing
    Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

            1.         Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft.

2.         Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct   

            conventions.

3.         Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions.

4.         Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the

            draft.

Publishing
      Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

1.                  Prepare writing in a format (e.g., oral presentation, manuscript, multimedia)

appropriate to audience and purpose.

2.         Share the writing with the intended audience.

3.         Use margins and spacing to enhance the final product.

4.         Write legibly.

 

Writing Elements

Ideas and Content

• Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

1.         Express ideas that are clear and directly related to the topic.

2.         Provide content and selected details that are well-suited to audience and purpose.

3.         Use relevant details to provide adequate support for the ideas.

Organization

• Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

1.                  Use a structure that fits the type of writing (e.g., letter format, narrative, lines of

poetry).

2.         Create a beginning that captures the reader’s interest.

3.         Place details appropriately to support the main idea.

4.         Use a variety of transitional words that creates smooth connections between ideas.

5.         Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.

6.         Construct a paragraph that groups sentences around a topic.

 

 

Voice

• Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

1.         Show awareness of the audience through word choice and style.

2.         Convey a sense of originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to topic and type of writing.

Word Choice

• Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

1.         Use a variety of specific and accurate words that effectively convey the intended message.

2.         Use descriptive words and phrases that energize the writing.

3.         Apply vocabulary and/or terminology appropriate to the type of writing.

4.         Use literal and figurative language in a variety of ways (e.g., imitating, creating new words, rhyming), although may be inconsistent or experimental.

Sentence Fluency

• Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.

1.         Write simple and compound sentences.

2.         Write sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.

3.         Vary sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.

4.         Use effective and natural dialogue when appropriate.

Conventions

• Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

1.         Use capital letters for:

a.      proper nouns (i.e., names, days, months)

b.      titles

c.      names of places

d.      abbreviations

e.      literary titles (i.e., book, story, poem)

 2.        Punctuate endings of sentences using:

a.      periods

b.      question marks

c.      exclamation points

3.         Use commas to punctuate:

a.      items in a series

b.      greetings and closings of letters

c.      dates

d.      introductory words

4.         Use quotation marks to punctuate:
a. dialogue (although may be inconsistent or experimental)
b. titles

5.         Use a colon to punctuate time.

6.         Use apostrophes to punctuate:
a. contractions

b. singular possessive

7.         Spell high-frequency words correctly.

8.         Use common spelling patterns/generalizations to spell words correctly, including:

a.      r-controlled

b.      diphthong

c.   vowel digraphs

d.      CVC words

e.      CCVC words

f.         CVCC words

g.      silent e

h.       irregular plurals

i.          affixes

 9.   Spell simple homonyms correctly in context.

10.  Use resources (e.g., dictionaries, word walls) to spell correctly.

11. Use paragraph breaks to indicate an organizational structure.

12.  Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

a.      nouns

b.      action verbs

c.      personal pronouns

d.      adjectives

e.      conjunctions

13.  Use subject/verb agreement in simple and compound sentences.

 

Writing Applications
Expressive

• Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

1.                  Write a narrative based on imagined or real events, observations, or memories that

includes:

a.      characters

b.      a setting

c.      a plot

d.      sensory details

e.      clear language

f.         logical sequence of events

2.         Write in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., poetry, skit) that may employ:

a.      figurative language

b.      rhythm

c.      dialogue

d.      characterization

e.      a plot

f.         appropriate format

Expository

• Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

1.         Record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, map labels and legends) related to the topic.

2.         Write an expository paragraph that contains:

a.      a topic sentence

b.      supporting details

c.      relevant information

3.         Write in a variety of expository forms (e.g., essay, summary, newspaper article, reflective paper, log, journal).

Functional

• Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
        1.       Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions, recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels,

graphs/tables).
2.         Write communications, including:

a.      thank-you notes

b.      friendly letters

c.      formal letters

d.      messages

e.      invitations

3.         Address an envelope for correspondence that includes:

a.      an appropriate return address

b.      an appropriate recipient address

Persuasive

• Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.

 1.        Write persuasive text (e.g., advertisement, paragraph) that attempts to influence the reader.

 

Literary Response

• Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

1.         Write a reflection to a literature selection (e.g., journal entry, book review).

2.         Write a book report or review that identifies the:

a.      main idea

b.      character(s)

c.      setting

d.      sequence of events

e.      conflict/solution

3.         Write a response that demonstrates an understanding of a literary selection, and depending on the
selection, includes:

d.      evidence from the text

e.      personal experience

f.   comparison to other text/media

Research

• Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

1.         Paraphrase information from a variety of sources (e.g. reference materials).

2.         Organize notes in a meaningful sequence.

3.         Write an informational report that includes main ideas and relevant details.

 

FIFTH GRADE

Writing Process

Prewriting

      • Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

1.         Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizer, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion, printed material).

2.         Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade) of an intended writing piece.

3.         Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

4.         Use organizational strategies (e.g., graphic organizer, KWL chart, log) to plan writing.

5.         Maintain a record (e.g., list, pictures, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

6.         Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

 

 

Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

1.         Use a prewriting plan to develop a draft with main idea(s) and supporting details.

2.         Organize writing into a logical sequence that is clear to the audience.

Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

1.         Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency. 

2.         Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.

3.         Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs to clarify the meaning of the draft.

4.         Use a combination of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.

5.         Modify word choice appropriate to the application in order to enhance the writing.

6.         Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.

7.         Use resources and reference materials to select more precise vocabulary.

Editing
      Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

1.         Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft.

2.         Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct

            conventions.

3.         Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions.

4.         Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the

            draft.

Publishing
      Publishing involves formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

1.                  Prepare writing in a format (e.g., oral presentation, manuscript, multimedia)    

appropriate to audience and purpose.

2.         Share the writing with the intended audience.

3.         Use margins and spacing to enhance the final product.

4.         Write legibly.

 

Writing Elements
Ideas and Content

• Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

1.         Express ideas that are clear and directly related to the topic.

2.         Provide content and selected details that are well-suited to audience and purpose.

3.         Use relevant details to provide adequate support for the ideas.

Organization

• Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.

1.                  Use a structure that fits the type of writing (e.g., letter format, narrative, lines of

poetry).

2.         Create a beginning that captures the reader’s interest.

3.         Place details appropriately to support the main idea.

4.         Use a variety of words or phrases that creates smooth and effective transitions.

5.         Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.

6.         Construct a paragraph that groups sentences around a topic.

Voice

• Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

1.         Show awareness of the audience through word choice and style.

2.         Convey a sense of originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to topic and

type of writing.

3.         Use language appropriate for topic and purpose.

Word Choice

• Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

1.         Use a variety of specific and accurate words that effectively convey the intended message.

2.         Use descriptive words and phrases that energize the writing.

3.         Apply vocabulary and/or terminology appropriate to the type of writing.

4.         Use literal and figurative language where appropriate to purpose.

Sentence Fluency

• Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
        1.       Write simple and compound sentences.

2.         Write sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.

3.         Vary sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.

4.         Use effective and natural dialogue when appropriate.

Conventions

• Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.

1.         Use capital letters correctly for:

a.      proper nouns
place names
• holidays
• languages
• historical events
• organizations

b.      literary titles (i.e., book, story, poem, play, song)

c.      titles

d.      abbreviations

e.      words used as names (i.e., Mother, Uncle Jim)

2.         Punctuate endings of sentences using:

a.      periods

b.      question marks

c.      exclamation points

3.         Use commas to punctuate:

a.      items in a series

b.      greetings and closings of letters

c.      dates

d.      introductory words

e.      dialogue

f.         direct address

4.         Use quotation marks to punctuate:
a. simple dialogue
b. titles

5.         Use colons to punctuate:

a. time
b. business letter salutations

6.         Use apostrophes to punctuate:
a. contractions

b. singular possessive

7.         Spell high-frequency words correctly.

8.         Use common spelling patterns/generalizations to spell words correctly, including:

a.      irregular plurals

b.      silent e

c.   i before e

d.      words ending in -y

e.     doubling final consonant

9.         Spell homonyms correctly in context.

10.         Use resources (e.g., dictionaries, word walls) to spell correctly.

11.       Use paragraph breaks to indicate an organizational structure.

12.         Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

a.      nouns

b.      action verbs

c.      personal pronouns

d.      conjunctions

e.      adverbs

13.  Use subject/verb agreement in simple and compound sentences.

 

Writing Applications

Expressive

• Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based  on real or imagined events.

1.                  Write a narrative based on imagined or real events, observations, or memories that

includes:

a.      characters

b.      a setting

c.      a  plot

d.      sensory details

e.      clear language

f.         logical sequence of events

2.         Write in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., poetry, skit) that may employ:

a.      figurative language

b.      rhythm

c.      dialogue

d.      characterization

e.      a  plot

f.         appropriate format

Expository

• Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

1.         Record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, map labels and legends) related to the topic.

2.         Write an expository paragraph that contains:

d.      a topic sentence

e.      supporting details

f.         relevant information

3.         Write in a variety of expository forms (e.g., essay, summary, newspaper article, reflective paper, log, journal).

Functional

• Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
      1.         Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions, recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels,

graphs/tables).

              2.       Write communications, including:

thank-you notes

friendly letters

formal letters

messages

invitations

3.         Address an envelope for correspondence that includes:

an appropriate return address

an appropriate recipient address

Persuasive

• Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.

1.                  Write persuasive text (e.g., advertisement, paragraphs) that attempts to influence the  reader.

Literary Response

• Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

1.         Write a reflection to a literature selection (e.g., journal entry, book review).

2.         Write a book report or review that identifies the:

main idea

character(s)

setting

sequence of events

conflict/solution

3.         Write a response that demonstrates an understanding of a literary selection, and depending on the
selection, includes:

a.      evidence from the text

b.      personal experience

c.      comparison to other text/media

Research

• Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

1.         Paraphrase information from a variety of sources (e.g., Internet, reference materials).

2.         Organize notes in a meaningful sequence.

3.         Write an informational report that includes main ideas and relevant details.

 

 

READING

Reading Process
Reading Process consists of the five critical components of reading, which are Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary and Comprehension of connected text. These elements support each other and are woven together to build a solid foundation of linguistic understanding for the reader.

1.      Print Concepts:  These skills establish an awareness of the organization of our written language as students learn to access print in the early stages of reading development. Specific skills include demonstrating correct directional behavior, from opening a book to following the text, recognizing distinguishing features of a sentence, such as end punctuation and alphabetizing a list of words.

2.      Phonemic Awareness: Phonemic Awareness is the knowledge of the individual speech sounds in spoken words and the ability to manipulate those sounds. Instructional time spent isolating the sounds in spoken language, and then putting them back together into a complete word, enables students to work from the familiar (sounds) to the unknown (letters). 

3.      Phonics:  Phonics is the understanding of the symbol-sound relationship in written language. Students learn that there are predictable connections between the sounds or phonemes that are spoken, and the letters or graphemes that are written. This knowledge is important as students begin to decode unfamiliar words in text. 

4.      Vocabulary:  Readers who develop a rich and varied repertoire of word meanings have a greater capacity for understanding the text they read. Reading vocabulary refers specifically to words readers recognize or use in print. Students learn vocabulary by direct instruction, and also indirectly through experiences in listening to read alouds and in reading on their own.

5.      Fluency:  Fluency is the ability to read a text with automaticity, accuracy, and expression to support comprehension. Fluency is a critical bridge between decoding and comprehension. Once a reader is able to access the printed words with confidence, he or she can better concentrate on reading for understanding.

6.      Comprehension Strategies:  Understanding the meaning embedded in text is the fundamental reason for reading. Good readers establish a purpose for reading and actively monitor their comprehension to accomplish their goal. They adjust the speed of their reading to accommodate challenging text, resolve comprehension problems while they’re reading, and check for understanding when they are finished. Good readers consciously use comprehension strategies to make sense of what they have read. 

 

Comprehending Literary Text
Comprehending Literary Text identifies the comprehension strategies that are specific in the study of a variety of literature.

1.      Elements of Literature:  elements in this concept address higher level thinking skills. This concept addresses the structure and elements of text such as plot, characters and theme, but also analyze, interpret, conclude and draw inferences. In this strand, students are expected to identify, analyze and interpret a variety of genres, relating them to their own experience and knowledge.

2.      Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature:  This concept recognizes that comprehension of literary text is enhanced by an informed awareness of global issues and cultures. Literature that crosses cultural and national boundaries offers an excellent experience for students to broaden their horizons and understanding. Learning about the historical impact of an issue or incident allows today’s students to make connections to the past and understand the present. 

 

Comprehending Informational Text
Comprehending Informational Text delineates specific and unique skills that are required to understand the wide array of informational text that is a part of our day to day experiences.

1.      Expository Text:  Expository text, such as encyclopedias, articles, textbooks and reference sources, provides organized information and explanations. Students need to be able to use, interpret, and analyze expository text to locate information for school or personal use.

2.      Functional Text:  Functional text, such as maps, schedules, forms and workplace manuals conveys information. Students need to be able to use, interpret, and analyze functional text in order to perform everyday practical tasks.

 

KINDERGARTEN

Reading Process
Print Concepts:
        Demonstrate understanding of print concepts.

1.               Recognize that print represents spoken language and conveys meaning (e.g., his/her  

own name, Exit and Danger signs).

            2.         Hold a book right side up and turn pages in the correct direction.

3.         Start at the top left of the printed page, track words from left to right, using return sweep, and move from the top to the bottom of the page.

 4.        Identify different parts of a book (e.g., front cover, back cover, title page) and the information they provide.

             5.        Distinguish between printed letters and words.

 6.        Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences

            of letters.

             7.        Recognize the concept of words by segmenting spoken sentences into individual words.

 8.        Demonstrate the one-to-one correlation between a spoken word and a printed word.

Phonemic Awareness

      Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech.

1.                 Distinguish spoken rhyming words from non-rhyming words (e.g., run, sun versus run,

man).

2.                 Orally produce rhyming words in response to spoken words (e.g., What rhymes with

hat?).

 3.        Orally produce groups of words that begin with the same initial sound (alliteration).

 4.        Blend two or three spoken syllables to say words.

 5.        Blend spoken simple onsets and rimes to form real words (e.g., onset /c/ and rime /at/

            makes cat).

6.             Blend spoken phonemes to form a single syllable word (e.g., /m/…/a/…/n/…makes

       man).

 7.        Identify the initial and final sounds (not the letter) of a spoken word.

 8.        Segment one-syllable words into its phonemes, using manipulatives to mark each

            phoneme (e.g., dog makes /d/…/o/…/g/ while the student moves a block or tile for each

            phoneme).

Phonics

      Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts.

              1.        Identify letters of the alphabet (upper and lower case).

 2.        Recognize that a new word is created when a specific letter is changed, added, or

removed.

 3.        Say letter sounds represented by the single-lettered consonants and vowels.

Vocabulary

      Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.
             1.        Determine what words mean from how they are used in a sentence, heard or read.

 2.        Sort familiar words into basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods).

Comprehension Strategies

      Employ strategies to comprehend text.
       1.        Make predictions based on title, cover, illustrations, and text.

2.               Derive meaning from books that are highly predictable, use repetitive syntax, and have

linguistic redundancy.

 

Comprehending Literary Text
Elements of Literature

 Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature.

 1.        Participate (e.g., react, speculate, join in, read along) when predictably patterned selections of fiction and poetry are read aloud.

 2.        Identify elements of a story, including characters, setting, and key events.

 3.        Retell or re-enact a story, placing the events in the correct sequence.

 4.        Determine whether a literary selection, that is heard, is realistic or fantasy.

 

Comprehending Informational Text
 Expository Text
            Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository

text.

             1.        Identify the purpose for reading expository text.

 2.        Restate facts from listening to expository text.

 3.        Respond appropriately to questions based on facts in expository text, heard or read.

 Functional Text

 Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.

1.                  Sequentially follow a two or three-step set of directions (e.g., recipes, center directions,

classroom procedures, science experiments) using picture clues.

2.         Identify signs, symbols, labels, and captions in the environment.

 

FIRST GRADE

 Reading Process

Print Concepts

      Demonstrate understanding of print concepts.

 1.        Alphabetize a series of words to the first letter.

 2.        Distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters.

 3.        Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization, ending

punctuation).

 4.        Identify the title, author, and table of contents of a book.

 Phonemic Awareness

 Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech.

             1.        Generate a series of rhyming words, including consonant blends.

             2.        Orally segment a multi-syllable word into its syllables.

             3.        Recognize the new spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed or removed (e.g., change cow to how, pan to an).

             4.        Distinguish between initial, medial, and final sounds in single-syllable words.

             5.        Distinguish between long and short vowel sounds in orally stated single-syllable words (bit/bite).

             6.        Generate sounds from letters and letter patterns, including consonant blends and long- and short-vowel patterns (phonograms), to combine those sounds into recognizable words.

7.        Blend spoken phonemes with more than three sounds into one-syllable words, including consonant blends and digraphs (e.g., /f/i/n/d/ = find; /fl/a/t/ = flat).

  8.         Segment spoken phonemes contained in one-syllable words of two to five phoneme

sounds into individual phoneme sounds (e.g., splat = /s/p/l/a/t/ using manipulatives to

mark each phoneme).

 Phonics

       Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts.

1.                 Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words fluently by applying the most common

letter-sound correspondences, including the sounds represented by:

single letters (consonants and vowels)

consonant blends (e.g., bl, st, tr)

consonant digraphs (e.g., th, sh, ck)

vowel digraphs and diphthongs (e.g., ea, ie, ee)

             2.        Use knowledge of inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -ed, -ing) to identify base words.

             3.        Use knowledge of base words to identify compound words.

             4.        Read words with common spelling patterns (e.g., -ite, -ill, -ate).

             5.        Recognize high frequency words and irregular sight words.

             6.        Read common contractions fluently (e.g., I’m, I’ll, can’t).

 7.        Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and context to confirm decoding.

 Vocabulary
      Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.

1.         Recognize base words and their inflections (e.g., look, looks, looked, looking).

               2.      Classify common words into conceptual categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys).

               3.      Identify the words that comprise contractions (e.g., can’t=can not, it’s=it is, aren’t=are

                        not).

4.           Recognize that two words can make a compound word (e.g., sailboat, football,

popcorn).

Fluency

      • Read fluently.

             1.        Consistently read grade level text with at least 90 percent accuracy.

             2.        Read aloud with fluency in a manner that sounds like natural speech.

Comprehension Strategies

       Employ strategies to comprehend text.

 1.        Predict what might happen next in a reading selection.

 2.        Relate information and events in a reading selection to life experiences and life

experiences to the text.


Comprehending Literary Text

 Elements of Literature

       Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature.

 1.        Identify the plot of a literary selection, heard or read.

 2.        Describe characters (e.g., traits, roles, similarities) within a literary selection, heard or

read.

 3.        Sequence a series of events in a literary selection, heard or read.

 4.        Determine whether a literary selection, heard or read, is realistic or fantasy.

 5.        Participate (e.g., clapping, chanting, choral reading) in the reading of poetry by

responding to the rhyme and rhythm.

 

 

 Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature

       Recognize and apply knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of American, British, and world literature.

1.                 Compare events, characters and conflicts in literary selections from a variety of cultures

to their experiences.

 

Comprehending Informational Text
Expository Text
      Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.

             1.        Identify the topic of expository text, heard or read.

 2.        Answer questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how) about expository text,

heard or read.

3.                 Identify organizational features (e.g., title, table of contents, heading, bold print) of

expository text.

 Functional Text

 Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.

 1.        Follow a set of written multi-step directions with picture cues to assist.

 2.        Determine whether a specific task is completed, by checking to make sure all the steps were followed in the right order, with picture cues to assist.

 3.        State the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic, safety, warning signs).

 

SECOND GRADE

Reading Process

 Print Concepts
               1.      Alphabetize a series of words to the second letter.

2.                 Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of the first word,

internal           punctuation, ending punctuation, quotation marks).

Phonemic Awareness

1.         Orally segment a multi-syllable word into its syllables.

2.         Blend isolated phonemes to form two-syllable words, using r-controlled vowel sounds,

digraphs, and diphthongs (e.g., /t/…/i/…/g/…/er/ makes tiger).

3.                 Segment spoken phonemes in two-syllable words, using manipulatives to mark each phoneme (e.g., tiger makes /t/…/i/…/g/…/er/ while student moves one block for each phoneme).

Phonics

            1.         Read multi-syllabic words fluently, using letter-sound knowledge.

2.         Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when decoding two- or three-syllable

written words (e.g., su/per, sup/per, fam/i/ly).

3.         Recognize regular plurals (e.g., hat/hats, watch/watches) and irregular plurals (e.g., fly/flies, wife/wives) in context.

           4.         Use knowledge of spelling patterns such as diphthongs, and special vowel spellings

when reading.

            5.         Read common abbreviations (e.g., Oct., Mr., Ave.) fluently.

            6.         Recognize high frequency words and irregular sight words.

7.         Read common contractions fluently (e.g., haven’t, it’s, aren’t).

              8.       Use knowledge of vowel digraphs and r-controlled letter-sound associations to read

words.

             9.        Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and context to confirm decoding.

Vocabulary
               1.      Identify simple prefixes (e.g., un-, re-) to determine the meaning of words.

2.         Use knowledge of simple prefixes (e.g., un-, re-) to determine the meaning of words.

               3.      Identify simple suffixes (e.g., -ful, -ly) to determine the meaning of words.

4.         Use knowledge of simple suffixes (e.g., -ful, -ly) to determine the meaning of words.

           5.         Recognize words represented by common abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave., Oct.).

6.         Identify the words that comprise contractions (e.g., can’t = can not, it’s = it is, aren’t =

are not).

7.      Determine the meaning of compound words, using knowledge of individual words (e.g.,

lunchtime, daydream, everyday).

Fluency

               1.      Consistently read grade level text with at least 90 percent accuracy.

               2.      Read aloud with fluency in a manner that sounds like natural speech, demonstrating

automaticity.

3.                 Use punctuation, including commas, periods, and question marks to guide reading

            for fluency.

Comprehension Strategies

            1.         Predict what might happen next in a reading selection.

2.         Compare a prediction about an action or event to what actually occurred within a text.

            3.         Ask relevant questions in order to comprehend text.

4.         Relate information and events in a reading selection to life experiences and life

            experiences to the text.

 

Comprehending Literary Text
Elements of Literature

1.                  Describe literary elements of text including characters, plot (specific events, problem

and solution), and setting.

2.         Describe characters (e.g., traits, roles, similarities) within a literary selection.

3.         Sequence a series of events in a literary selection.

4.         Identify cause and effect of specific events in a literary selection.

5.         Identify words that the author selects in a literary selection to create a graphic visual

experience.

6.         Identify words that the author selects to create a rich auditory experience (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance, consonance) in a literary selection.

7.         Identify differences between fiction and nonfiction.

Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature 

1.         Compare events, characters and conflicts in literary selections from a variety of cultures to their experiences.

 

Comprehending Informational Text
Expository Text
            1.         Identify the main idea in expository text.

2.         Locate facts in response to questions about expository text.

3.         Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., title, table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, glossary, indices) in expository text.

4.         Identify a variety of sources (e.g., trade books, encyclopedias, magazines, electronic

sources, textbooks) that may be used to answer specific questions and/or gather

information

5.         Locate specific information from graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines) of expository text.

Functional Text

            1.         Follow a set of written multi-step directions.

2.         Determine whether a specific task is completed, by checking to make sure all the steps were followed in the right order.

3.         State the meaning of specific signs, graphics, and symbols  (e.g., computer icons, map

features, simple charts and graphs).

 

THIRD GRADE

 

Reading Process

Print Concepts

1.         Alphabetize a series of words to the third letter.

2.         Recognize the distinguishing features of a paragraph (e.g., indentation of first word,

topic sentence, supporting sentences, concluding sentences).

Phonics
            1.         Read multi-syllabic words fluently, using letter-sound knowledge.

2.                  Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when decoding four- or five-syllable written

words (e.g., in/for/ma/tion, mul/ti/pli/ca/tion, pep/per/o/ni).

3.         Apply knowledge of the following common spelling patterns to read words:

that drop the final e and add endings such as: –ing, -ed, or –able (e.g., use/using/used/usable)

with final consonants that need to be doubled when adding an ending (e.g., hop/hopping)

that require changing the final y to i (e.g., baby/babies)

that end in –tion, -sion (e.g., election, vision)

with complex word families (e.g.,  -ight, -ought)

that include common prefixes, suffixes and root words

            4.         Read common abbreviations (e.g., Wed., Sept.) fluently.

            5.         Recognize high frequency words and irregular sight words.

            6.         Use knowledge of word order (syntax) and context to confirm decoding.

Vocabulary
             1.        Use knowledge of prefixes (e.g., un-, re-, in-, dis-) to determine the meaning of words.

             2.        Use knowledge of suffixes (e.g., -ful, -ly, -less) to determine the meaning of words.

          3.          Recognize words represented by common abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave.,Oct.)

             4.        Identify the words that comprise a contraction (e.g., can’t=can not, it’s=it is, aren’t=are

not).

             5.        Determine the meaning of compound words, using knowledge of individual words

(e.g., lunchtime, daydream, everyday). 

             6.        Determine the meaning of common synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms.

             7.        Determine the meanings and other features of words (e.g., pronunciation, syllabication, synonyms, parts of speech) using the dictionary and thesaurus

Fluency

            1.         Consistently read grade level text with at least 90 percent accuracy.

            2.         Read aloud from familiar prose and poetry with fluency and appropriate rhythm, pacing, intonation, and vocal patterns.

Comprehension Strategies
      1.         Predict events and actions, based upon prior knowledge and text features.

2.         Compare a prediction about an action or event to what actually occurred within a text.

3.         Ask relevant questions in order to comprehend text.

4.         Answer clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.

5.         Extract information from graphic organizers (e.g., webs, Venn diagrams, flow charts) to comprehend text.

6.         Connect information and events in text to related text and sources.

 

Comprehending Literary Text
Elements of Literature

1.                  Compare (and contrast) literary elements across stories, including plots, settings, and

characters.

2.         Describe characters (e.g., traits, roles, similarities) within a literary selection.  

       3.        Sequence a series of events in a literary selection.

4.         Make relevant connections (e.g., relationships, cause/effect, comparisons) between earlier events and later events in text.

5.         Identify the speaker or narrator in a literary selection.

6.         Identify rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and sensory images in poetry.

7.         Distinguish between/among fiction, nonfiction, poetry, plays, and narratives, using

knowledge of their structural elements.

Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature

1.         Compare events, characters and conflicts in literary selections from a variety of cultures to their experiences.

 

Comprehending Informational Text
Expository Text
            1.         Identify the main idea and supporting details in expository text.

2.         Locate facts in response to questions about expository text.

3.         Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., title, table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, key words, glossary, indices, italics) in expository text.

4.         Use a variety of sources (e.g., trade books, encyclopedias, magazines, atlases, almanacs, electronic sources, textbooks) to answer specific questions, and/or gather information.

5.         Interpret information from graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations,

tables, timelines) of expository text.

Functional Text                                                  

            1.         Follow a set of written multi-step directions.

2.         Provide multi-step directions.

3.         Evaluate written directions for sequence and completeness.

4.         Interpret information in functional documents (e.g., maps, schedules, pamphlets) for a

specific purpose.

Persuasive Text

1.         Distinguish fact from opinion in persuasive text (e.g., advertisements, product labels, written communications).

2.         Identify persuasive vocabulary (e.g., emotional words) used to influence readers'

perspective

 

FOURTH GRADE


Reading Process

Vocabulary
               1.      Use knowledge of root words and affixes to determine the meaning of unknown words.

2.         Use context to determine the relevant meaning of a word.

3.         Determine the difference between figurative language and literal language.

4.         Identify figurative language, including similes, personification, and idioms.  

5.         Determine the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, and glossaries (and CD-ROM and Internet when available).

6.         Identify antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms for given words within text.

Fluency

1.                  Read from familiar prose and poetry with fluency and appropriate rhythm, pacing,

intonation, and expression relevant to the text.

Comprehension Strategies

1.         Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key  words).

2.         Confirm predictions about text for accuracy.

3.         Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.

4.         Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.

5.         Connect information and events in a text to experience and to related text and sources.

6.         Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

 

Comprehending Literary Text
Elements of Literature

1.         Identify the main problem or conflict of a plot.

2.         Identify the resolution of a problem or conflict in a plot. 

3.         Identify the moral of literary selection (e.g., fables, folktales, fairytales, legends).

4.         Distinguish between major characters and minor characters.

5.         Describe a character’s traits using textual evidence (e.g., dialogue, actions, narrations,

illustrations).

6.         Identify the speaker or narrator in a literary selection.

7.         Identify all aspects of the setting (e.g., time of day or year, historical period, place,

situation).

8.         Compare (and contrast) the characters, events, and setting in a literary selection.

9.         Identify characteristics and structural elements (e.g., imagery, rhyme, verse, rhythm,

meter) of poetry.

10.       Identify common forms of literature (e.g., poetry, novel, short story, biography,

            autobiography, drama)      based upon their characteristics.

Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature
                1.     Describe the historical and cultural aspects found in cross–cultural works of literature.

 

Comprehending Informational Text

Expository Text

            1.         Identify the main idea and supporting details in expository text

2.         Distinguish fact from opinion in expository text.

3.         Determine author's main purpose (e.g., to inform, to describe, to explain) for writing the

expository text.

4.                  Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents,

headings, captions, bold print, glossaries, indices, italics, key words, topic sentences, concluding sentences) of expository text.

5.         Identify appropriate print and electronic reference sources (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, textbooks, CD-ROM, website) needed for a specific purpose.

6.         Interpret information from graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines) in expository text.

7.         Distinguish cause from effect.

8.         Draw valid conclusions based on information gathered from expository text.

Functional Text

1.         Locate specific information from functional text (e.g., letters, memos, directories, menus, schedules, pamphlets, search engines, signs, manuals, instructions, recipes, labels, forms).

2.         Interpret details from functional text for a specific purpose (e.g., to follow directions, to solve problems, to perform procedures, to answer questions). 

Persuasive Text

1.         Determine the author’s position regarding a particular idea, subject, concept, or object. 

2.         Identify persuasive vocabulary (e.g., loaded/emotional words, exaggeration) used to

influence readers' opinions.

 

FIFTH GRADE

 

Reading Process

Vocabulary

 Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.

 1.        Use knowledge of root words and affixes to determine the meaning of unknown words.

 2.        Use context to determine the intended meaning of a word with multiple meanings (e.g., hatch, arm, boot).

             3.        Determine the difference between figurative language and literal language.

 4.        Determine the meaning of figurative language, including similes, personification, and

idioms.

 5.        Determine the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri,

 6.        Identify antonyms, synonyms, and homographs for given words within text.

 Fluency

 1.        Read from familiar prose and poetry with fluency and appropriate rhythm, pacing, intonation, and expression relevant to the text.

 Comprehension Strategies

       Employ strategies to comprehend text.
               1.         Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles,

topic key words).

 2.        Confirm predictions about text for accuracy.

 3.        Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.

 4.        Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.

 5.        Connect information and events in a text to experience and to related text and sources.

 6.        Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

 

Comprehending Literary Text
 Elements of Literature

Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature.

1.                 Identify the components of a plot (e.g., main events, conflict, rising action, climax, falling

action, resolution).

2.                 Identify the theme (moral, lesson, meaning, message, view or comment on life) of a

literary selection.

 3.        Distinguish between major characters and minor characters.

 4.        Analyze how a character’s traits influence that character’s actions.

 5.        Identify the narrative point of view (e.g., first person, third person, omniscient) in a

literary selection.

 6.        Determine of all the aspects of the setting (e.g., time of day or year, historical period, place, situation) in a literary selection.

 7.        Identify the intended effect of the techniques (e.g., appeal of characters, believability of characters and plot, use of figurative language) that the author uses to influence readers’ feelings and attitudes. 

 8.        Identify types of poetry (e.g., free verse, haiku, cinquain, limericks).

9.        Identify various genres of fiction (e.g., mysteries, science fiction, historical fiction, adventures, fantasies, fables, myths) based upon their characteristics.

Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature
                1.     Describe the historical and cultural aspects found in cross–cultural works of literature.

 

Comprehending Informational Text

Expository Text

Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.

             1.        Identify the main idea and supporting details in expository text.

 2.        Distinguish fact from opinion in expository text, using supporting evidence from text.

 3.        Determine author's main purpose (e.g., to inform, to describe, to explain) for writing the

expository text.

 4.        Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, glossaries, indices, italics, key words, topic sentences, concluding sentences) of expository text.

 5.        Locate appropriate print and electronic reference sources (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, textbooks.

 6.        Interpret information from graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines) in expository text.

 7.        Identify cause and effect relationships (stated and implied).

             8.        Draw valid conclusions based on information gathered from expository text.

Functional Text

 Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.

1.         Locate specific information from functional text (e.g., letters, memos, directories, menus, schedules, pamphlets, search engines, signs, manuals, instructions, recipes, labels, forms).

       2.        Interpret details from functional text for a specific purpose (e.g., to follow directions, to solve problems, to perform procedures, to answer questions).

 Persuasive Text

Explain basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the author’s purpose and use of persuasive strategies.

 1.        Determine an author’s position regarding a particular idea, subject, concept, or object, using supporting evidence from the text.

 2.        Identify the intended effect of persuasive vocabulary (e.g., loaded/emotional words, exaggeration, euphemisms) that the author uses to influence readers' opinions.

 3.        Identify the intended effect of persuasive strategies (e.g., peer pressure, bandwagon, repetition) that the author uses to influence readers' perspectives.

 

LISTENING

 

KINDERGARTEN

 

 

Listening and Speaking

Students effectively listen and speak in situations that serve different purposes and involve a variety of audiences.
Students know and are able to do the following:

• Tell or retell a personal experience or creative story in a logical sequence.

• Follow simple directions.

• Share ideas, information, opinions and questions.

• Listen and respond to stories, poems and nonfiction.

• Participate in group discussions.

 

FIRST TO THIRD GRADE

Listening and Speaking
Students effectively listen and speak in situations that serve different purposes and involve a variety of audiences.
Students know and are able to do the following:

• Use effective vocabulary and logical organization to relate or summarize ideas, events and other information.

• Give and follow multiple-step directions.

• Prepare and deliver information by generating topics; identifying the audience; and organizing ideas, facts or opinions for a variety of speaking purposes such as giving directions, relating personal experiences, telling a story or presenting a report.

 

FOURTH TO FIFTH GRADE

 

Listening and Speaking

Students effectively listen and speak in situations that serve different purposes and involve a variety of audiences.
Students know and are able to do the following:

      • Prepare and deliver an organized speech and effectively convey the message through verbal and nonverbal communications with a specific audience.

• Prepare and deliver an oral report in a content area and effectively convey the information through verbal and nonverbal communications with a specific audience.

• Interpret and respond to questions and evaluate responses both as interviewer and interviewee.

   • Predict, clarify, analyze and critique a speaker’s information and point of view.

 

 

Mathematical/ Logical

Intelligence

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

"We believe that education is one of the principal causes of discontent of late years manifesting itself among the laboring classes."

- The 1888 Report of the Senate Committee on Education includes this line, on page 1,382

 

 

Gardner’s logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. For that reason, we include an adaptation of math and science standards.

 

Number and Operations

Number sense is the understanding of numbers and how they relate to each other and how they are used in specific context or real-world application. It includes an awareness of the different ways in which numbers are used, such as counting, measuring, labeling, and locating. It includes an awareness of the different types of numbers such as, whole numbers, integers, fractions, and decimals and the relationships between them and when each is most useful. Number sense includes an understanding of the size of numbers, so that students should be able to recognize that the volume of their room is closer to 1,000 than 10,000 cubic feet. Students develop a sense of what numbers are, i.e., to use numbers and number relationships to acquire basic facts, to solve a wide variety of real-world problems, and to estimate to determine the reasonableness of results.

 

Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
Students use data collection, data analysis, statistics, probability, systematic listing and counting, and the study of graphs. This prepares students for the study of discrete functions as well as to make valid inferences, decisions, and arguments. Discrete mathematics is a branch of mathematics that is widely used in business and industry. Combinatorics is the mathematics of systematic counting.

 

Patterns, Algebra, and Functions
Patterns occur everywhere in nature. Algebraic methods are used to explore, model and describe patterns, relationships, and functions involving numbers, shapes, and graphs within a variety of real-world problem solving situations.

 

Geometry and Measurement
Geometry is a natural place for the development of students' reasoning, higher thinking, and justification skills culminating in work with proofs. Geometric modeling and spatial reasoning offer ways to interpret and describe physical environments and can be important tools in problem solving. Students use geometric methods, properties and relationships, transformations, and coordinate geometry as a means to recognize, draw, describe, connect, analyze, and measure shapes and representations in the physical world. Measurement is the assignment of a numerical value to an attribute of an object, such as the length of a pencil.

 

Structure and Logic

This section emphasizes the core processes of problem solving.. Students use algorithms, algorithmic thinking, and logical reasoning (both inductive and deductive) as they make conjectures and test the validity of arguments and proofs. Concept two develops the core processes as students evaluate situations, select problem solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize their applications.

 

KINDERGARTEN

 

Numbers and Operations

1: Number Sense

• Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, the relationships among numbers and different number systems. Students develop basic ideas of number and use numbers to think about objects and the world around them. They practice counting objects in sets, and they think about how numbers are ordered.

1.         Express whole numbers 0 to 20. 

-Knowing how to write them out with letters and numbers.
2.         Count forward to 20 and backward from 10 with or without objects using different

starting points. 
3.         Identify numbers which are one more or less than a given number to 20.
4.         Compare and order whole numbers through 20.

5.         Recognize and compare the ordinal position (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th…) of at least five objects.

2: Numerical Operations

Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another. Students build a foundation for learning how to add and subtract by putting together and taking apart numbers through ten. They apply strategies to solve contextual and numerical problems.

1.         Solve contextual problems by developing, applying, and recording strategies with addition and subtraction to 10 using objects, pictures, and symbols.

2.         Develop and use multiple strategies to determine

• sums to 10 and

• differences with subtractions to 10.

3.                 Create word problems based on addition to 10 and differences with sutraction to 10

3: Estimation

Use estimation.

 1.        Identify quantities to 20 as more or less than 5 or as more or less than 10.

 

Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
1: Data Analysis (Statistics)

Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data. Students collect data to create object graphs and pictographs and apply number concepts to describe and interpret the graphs.

 1.        Construct simple displays of data using objects or pictures.
 2.        Ask and answer questions by counting, comparing quantities, and interpreting simple

displays of data. 

2: Systematic Listing and Counting

Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes. Students sort objects and describe how they sorted them.

1.         Sort, classify, count, and represent up to 20 objects.

 

Patterns, Algebra, and Functions
1: Patterns

Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically while integrating content from other areas. Students study simple repeating and growing patterns in preparation for increasingly sophisticated patterns that can be represented with algebraic expressions in later grades.

1.         Recognize, describe, extend, create, and record simple repeating patterns.

2.         Recognize, describe, extend, and record simple patterns with growing complexity.

2: Algebraic Representations
      Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations.

      Students learn what it means to add and subtract by joining and separating sets of objects. This lays

      the foundation for algebraic thinking.

1.         Record equivalent forms of whole numbers to 10 by constructing models and using numbers.

2.         Compare expressions using spoken words and the symbol =.

 

Geometry and Measurement
1: Geometric Properties
Analyze the attributes and properties of 2- and 3-dimensional figures and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships. Students develop basic ideas related to geometry as they name, draw, describe, and compare simple two- and three-dimensional figures and find these shapes around them.

1.         Identify, analyze, and describe circles, triangles, and rectangles (including squares) in different
orientations and environments.

2.         Build, draw, compare, describe, and sort 2-dimensional figures (including irregular figures) using attributes.

2: Measurement
Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements. Students informally develop early measurement concepts. This is an important precursor to measurement in later grades when students measure objects with tools.

1.         Compare and order objects according to observable and measurable attributes.
2.         Use the attribute of length to describe and compare objects using non-standard units.

(For example, how many paperclips long is the shoe.)

 

 

 

Structure and Logic

1: Logic, Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Proof
Evaluate situations, select problem-solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize their applications. Students begin to build the understanding that doing mathematics involves solving problems and discussing how they solved them. Students also begin to develop their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like “How did you get that?” and “Why is that true?”

1.         Identify the question(s) asked and any other questions that need to be answered in order to find a solution.

2.         Identify the given information that can be used to find a solution.

3.         Select from a variety of problem-solving strategies and use one or more strategies to

arrive at a solution.

4.         Represent a problem situation using any combination of words, numbers, pictures, physical objects, or symbols.

5.         Explain and clarify mathematical thinking.

6.         Determine whether a solution is reasonable.

 

FIRST GRADE

 

Number and Operations

1: Number Sense

• Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, the relationships among numbers and different number systems. Students develop basic ideas of number and use numbers to think about objects and the world around them. They practice counting objects in sets, and they think about how numbers are ordered.

1.         Express whole numbers 0 to 100, in groups of tens and ones using and connecting multiple representations.

2.         Count forward to 100 and backward from 100 by 1s and 10s using different starting points, and count forward to 100 by 2s and 5s.

3.         Identify numbers which are 10 more or less than a given number to 90.

4.         Compare and order whole numbers through 100 by applying the concepts of place value.

5.         Recognize and compare ordinal numbers, first through tenth. 

2: Numerical Operations

Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another. Students build a foundation for learning how to add and subtract by putting together and taking apart numbers through ten. They apply strategies to solve contextual and numerical problems.

1.                  Solve contextual problems using multiple representations for addition and subtraction

facts.

2.         Demonstrate addition and subtraction of numbers that total less than 100 by using various representations that connect to place value concepts.

3.         Develop and use multiple strategies for addition facts to 10+10 and their related subtraction facts.

4.         Create word problems based on addition and subtraction facts.

5.         Apply properties to solve addition/subtraction problems to

• identity property of addition/subtraction and

• commutative property of addition.

* Commutative Property of Addition

The property of addition that allows two or more addends to be added in any order without changing the sum; a + b = b + a

3: Estimation

Use estimation strategies reasonably and fluently. Students use five, ten, and twenty as benchmark numbers to develop their sense of quantity as well as to compare numbers.  

1.                  Use estimation to determine if sums are more or less than 5, more or less than 10, or

more or less than 20.

 

Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
1: Data Analysis (Statistics)

• Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data. Students are introduced to basic ideas of data analysis by collecting and visually representing data. These ideas reinforce their understanding of whole numbers and addition and subtraction as students ask and answer questions about the data. As they move through the grades, students continue to apply what they learn about data, making mathematics relevant and connecting numbers to applied situations.

1.         Collect, record, organize, and display data using tally charts or pictographs.
2.         Ask and answer questions by interpreting simple displays of data, including tally charts

or pictographs.

2: Systematic Listing and Counting

• Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes. Students sort objects using a Venn diagram and describe how they sorted them.

1.         Use Venn diagrams to sort, classify, and count objects and justify the sorting rule.

 

Patterns, Algebra, and Functions
1: Patterns

Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically while integrating content from other areas. Students will continue to develop their understanding of repeating and growing patterns. Repeating patterns will be more sophisticated than in kindergarten. Students will notice that growing patterns involve addition and subtraction, and they will work with other types of patterns as they learn to make generalizations about what they observe.

1.         Recognize, describe, extend, create, and record repeating patterns. 
2.         Recognize, describe, extend, create, and record growing patterns.

2: Algebraic Representations

• Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations. Students work with and create number sentences in contextual situations as they construct equivalent forms of whole numbers and explore equations in their many forms.

1.         Record equivalent forms of whole numbers to 100 by constructing models and using numbers.
2.         Compare expressions using spoken words and the symbols = and ≠.

3.         Represent a word problem requiring addition or subtraction facts using an equation.

 

Geometry and Measurement.

1: Geometric Properties
Analyze the attributes and properties of 2- and 3-dimensional figures and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships. Students expand their knowledge of two-dimensional geometric figures by sorting, comparing, and contrasting them according to their characteristics. They learn important mathematical vocabulary used to name the figures. Students work with composite shapes made out of basic two-dimensional figures as they continue to develop their spatial sense of shapes, objects, and the world around them.

1.                  Identify and draw 2-dimensional geometric figures based on given attributes regardless

of size or orientation.

2.                  Compare and sort basic 2-dimensional figures (including irregular figures) using

attributes and explain the reasoning for the sorting.

2: Measurement

• Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements. Students begin to understand what it means to measure, and they develop their measuring skills using everyday objects. As they practice using measurement tools to measure objects, they reinforce their sense of number and continue to develop their sense of space and shapes.

1.         Compare and order objects according to length, capacity, and weight. 

2.         Measure and compare the length of objects using the benchmark of one inch. 

3.         Sequence the days of the week and the months of the year.

 

Structure and Logic

1: Logic, Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Proof

• Evaluate situations, select problem-solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize their applications. Students further develop the concept that doing mathematics involves solving problems and discussing what they did to solve them. Students continue to develop their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like “How did you get that?”; “Why did you do that?”; and “How do you know that?” Students begin to build their mathematical vocabulary as they use correct mathematical language appropriate to grade 1.

1.                  Identify the question(s) asked and any other questions that need to be answered in

order to find a solution.

2.         Identify the given information that can be used to find a solution.

3.         Select from a variety of problem-solving strategies and use one or more strategies to arrive at a solution.

4.         Represent a problem situation using any combination of words, numbers, pictures, physical objects, or symbols.

5.         Explain and clarify mathematical thinking.

6.        Determine whether a solution is reasonable.

SECOND GRADE

Number and Operations

1: Number Sense

• Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, and the relationships among numbers and different number systems. Students refine their understanding of the base ten number system and use place value concepts of ones, tens, and hundreds to understand number relationships. They become fluent in writing and renaming numbers in a variety of ways. This fluency, combined with the understanding of place value, is a strong foundation for learning how to add and subtract two-digit numbers.

1.                  Express whole numbers 0 to 1000, in groups of hundreds, tens and ones using and

connecting multiple representations.

2.                  Count forward to 1000 and backward from 1000 by 1s, 10s, and 100s using different

starting points.

3.         Identify numbers which are 100 more or less than a given number to 900.
4.         Compare and order whole numbers through 1000 by applying the concept of place  

value.
5.         Count money to $1.00.

6.         Sort whole numbers through 1000 into odd and even, and justify the sort.

 

2: Numerical Operations

• Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another. Students continue to focus on what it means to add and subtract as they become fluent with single-digit addition and subtraction facts and develop addition and subtraction procedures for two-digit numbers. Students make sense of these procedures by building on what they know about place value, number relationships, and putting together or taking apart sets of objects. They begin to develop an understanding of multiplication.

1.         Solve contextual problems using multiple representations involving

            • addition and subtraction with one- and/or two-digit numbers,

            • multiplication for 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s, and

            • adding and subtracting money to $1.00.

2.          Demonstrate the ability to add and subtract whole numbers (to at least two digits) and

decimals (in the context of money)

• with up to three addends

• and to $1.00. 

3.         Demonstrate fluency of addition and subtraction facts.

4.         Apply and interpret the concept of addition and subtraction as inverse operations to solve problems.

5.         Create and solve word problems based on addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers.

6.         Demonstrate the concept of multiplication for 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s.
7.  Describe the effect of operations (addition and subtraction) on the size of whole numbers.

8.         Apply properties to solve addition/subtraction problems

            • identity property of addition/subtraction,

            • commutative property of addition, and

                        • associative property of addition.

3: Estimation

Use estimation strategies reasonably and fluently. Students use the benchmark numbers 20, 50, and 100 to estimate   sums without rounding.

1.         Use estimation to determine if sums of two 2-digit numbers are more or less than 20, more or less than 50, or more or less than 100.

 

Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
1: Data Analysis (Statistics)

• Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data. Students create displays of data and ask and answer questions about data as they apply their growing understanding related to numbers and the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

1.      Collect, record, organize, and display data using pictographs, frequency tables, or single bar

graphs. 

2.      Formulate and answer questions by interpreting displays of data, including pictographs, frequency tables, or single bar graphs.

2: Systematic Listing and Counting

• Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes. Students apply their number sense skills to solve contextual problems involving systematic listing and counting.

1.         List all possibilities in counting situations.

2.         Solve a variety of problems based on the addition principle of counting.

 

Patterns, Algebra, and Functions
1: Patterns
Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically while integrating content from each of the other strands. Students work with patterns to extend their thinking about numbers, operations, and geometry and use reasoning to describe the patterns and their rules.

1.         Recognize, describe, extend, create, and find missing terms in a numerical or symbolic pattern.

2.         Explain the rule for a given numerical or symbolic pattern and verify that the rule works.

2: Functions and Relationships
• Describe and model functions and their relationships. Students extend their understanding of patterns as they explore the relationships between sets of numbers using objects, pictures, and function tables.

1.         Describe a rule that represents a given relationship between two quantities using words or pictures.

3: Algebraic Representations

• Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations. Students make strong connections between algebraic representations and number sense. These connections lay the foundation for future work with larger numbers and algebra.

1.         Record equivalent forms of whole numbers to 1000 by constructing models and using numbers. 

2.         Compare expressions using spoken words and the symbols =, ≠, <, and >.

3.         Represent a word problem requiring addition or subtraction through 100 using an equation.

4.         Identify the value of an unknown number in an equation involving an addition or subtraction fact.

 

Geometry and Measurement
1: Geometric Properties
Analyze the attributes and properties of 2- and 3-dimensional figures and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships. Students extend their spatial understanding of geometry developed in kindergarten and Grade 1 by solving problems involving two-dimensional figures.

1.                  Describe and compare the attributes of polygons up to six sides using the terms side, vertex, point, and length. 

2: Transformation of Shapes

• Apply spatial reasoning to create transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations. Students explain the rationale for symmetry of two-dimensional figures.

1.         Identify, with justification, whether a 2-dimensional figure has lines of symmetry. 

3: Measurement

• Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements. Students understand the process of measuring length and progress from measuring length with nonstandard units to using standard units. They use tools such as rulers, tape measures, or meter sticks. Students are well acquainted with two-digit numbers by this point and are able to tell time on different types of clocks.
      1.         Tell time to the nearest minute using analog and digital clocks.

2.           Apply measurement skills to measure the attributes of an object (length, capacity,

      weight).

3.         Read temperatures on a thermometer using Fahrenheit and Celsius.

            4.         Demonstrate unit conversions

• 1 foot = 12 inches,

• 1 quart = 4 cups, 

• 1 pound = 16 ounces,

• 1 hour = 60 minutes,

• 1 day = 24 hours,

• 1 week = 7 days, and

• 1 year = 12 months.

 

Structure and Logic

1: Logic, Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Proof

• Evaluate situations, select problem-solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize their applications. Students have opportunities to “do” mathematics by solving problems and talking about what they did to solve those problems. Students communicate their mathematical thinking and make increasingly more convincing mathematical arguments.

1.         Identify the question(s) asked and any other questions that need to be answered in order to find a solution.

2.         Identify the given information that can be used to find a solution.

3.         Select from a variety of problem-solving strategies and use one or more strategies to arrive at a solution.

4.         Represent a problem situation using any combination of words, numbers, pictures, physical objects, or symbols.

5.         Explain and clarify mathematical thinking.

6.         Determine whether a solution is reasonable.

 

 

THIRD GRADE

Number and Operations

1: Number Sense

• Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, and the relationships among numbers and different number systems. Students build on their previous work with numbers and deepen their understanding of place value in various contexts. They extend their understanding of the base ten number system to larger numbers and apply this understanding by representing numbers in various equivalent forms. Students develop an understanding of the meanings and uses of fractions. They solve problems that involve comparing and ordering fractions and learn to represent fractions in different ways.

1.      Express whole numbers through six digits using and connecting multiple representations.

2.      Compare and order whole numbers through six digits by applying the concept of place value.

3.      Count and represent money using coins and bills to $100.00.

            4.         Sort whole numbers into sets and justify the sort.

5.         Express benchmark fractions as fair sharing, parts of a whole, or parts of a set.

6.         Compare and order benchmark fractions.

2: Numerical Operations

• Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another. Students build on their previous work with numbers to understand the meanings of multiplication and division. Students apply basic multiplication facts and efficient procedures. They explore the relationship between multiplication and division as they learn related multiplication and division facts.

1.         Add and subtract whole numbers to four digits.
2.         Create and solve word problems based on addition, subtraction, multiplication, and

division.
3.         Demonstrate the concept of multiplication and division using multiple models.
4.         Demonstrate fluency of multiplication and division facts through 10.
5.         Apply and interpret the concept of multiplication and division as inverse operations to

solve problems.
6.         Describe the effect of operations (multiplication and division) on the size of whole

numbers.
7.         Apply commutative, identity, and zero properties to multiplication and apply the i

dentity property to division.

3: Estimation

Use estimation strategies reasonably and fluently while integrating content from each of the other strands. Students build upon their previous experience with estimation of numbers and quantities. They use multiple strategies to make estimations. Students compare the reasonableness of their estimate to the actual computation. Multiple and continuous estimation experiences lead to greater understanding of number sense.

1.         Make estimates appropriate to a given situation or computation with whole numbers.

 

Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
1: Data Analysis (Statistics)

• Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data. Students construct and analyze frequency tables, single bar graphs, and single line graphs in addition to pictographs and tally charts from previous grades and use them to solve problems. Students’ understanding of number and operations are reinforced as they interpret information from the displays of data.

1.         Collect, record, organize, and display data using frequency tables, single bar graphs, or single line graphs.

2.         Formulate and answer questions by interpreting and analyzing displays of data, including frequency tables, single bar graphs, or single line graphs.

 

 

2: Systematic Listing and Counting

• Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes. Students use lists and charts to systematically organize information and determine the outcomes of a given situation.

1.         Represent all possibilities for a variety of counting problems using arrays, charts, and systematic lists; draw conclusions from these representations.

2.         Solve a variety of problems based on the multiplication principle of counting.

 

Patterns, Algebra, and Functions

1: Patterns

Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically while integrating content from each of the other strands. Students understand that logical patterns exist and are a regular occurrence in mathematics. Students recognize, extend, and generalize numerical sequences with both words and symbols.

1.         Recognize, describe, extend, create, and find missing terms in a numerical sequence.
2.         Explain the rule for a given numerical sequence and verify that the rule works.

2: Functions and Relationships                                   

• Describe and model functions and their relationships. Students build on the ideas of functions from second grade. Students focus on the relationship between two quantities and how different representations are related.

1.         Recognize and describe a relationship between two quantities, given by a chart, table or graph, in which the quantities change proportionally, using words, pictures, or expressions.

2.         Translate between the different representations of whole number relationships, including symbolic, numerical, verbal, or pictorial.

3: Algebraic Representations

• Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations. Students use a variety of representations to illustrate mathematical situations and relationships. These representations help students conceptualize ideas and solve problems.

1.         Record equivalent forms of whole numbers to six digits by constructing models and using numbers.  

2.         Use a symbol to represent an unknown quantity in a given context.

3.         Create and solve simple one-step equations that can be solved using addition and multiplication facts.

 

Geometry and Measurement
1: Geometric Properties
Analyze the attributes and properties of 2- and 3-dimensional figures and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships. Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-and three-dimensional shapes.

1.         Describe sequences of 2-dimensional figures created by increasing the number of sides, changing size, or changing orientation.

2.         Recognize similar figures.

3.         Identify and describe 3-dimensional figures including their relationship to real world objects: sphere, cube, cone, cylinder, pyramids, and rectangular prisms.

4.         Describe and compare attributes of two- and three-dimensional figures.

2: Transformation of Shapes

• Apply spatial reasoning to create transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations. Students begin to apply their understanding of spatial reasoning and recognize how the positions of 2-dimensional figures change in terms of translations, reflections, and rotations.

1.   Identify a translation, reflection, or rotation and model its effect on a 2-dimensional figure. 

2.   Identify, with justification, all lines of symmetry in a 2-dimensional figure.

3: Measurement

• Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements. Students form an understanding of perimeter and area. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools to solve problems involving perimeter and area. In upper grades, they will calculate area and perimeters of more complex figures.

            1.         Determine elapsed time

                        • across months using a calendar

• by hours and half hours using a clock.

               2.      Apply measurement skills to measure length, weight, and capacity using US Customary units.

            3.         Convert units of length, weight, and capacity

• inches or feet to yards,

• ounces to pounds, and

• cups to pints, pints to quarts, quarts to gallons.

4.         Determine the area of a rectangular figure using an array model.

5.         Measure and calculate perimeter of 2-dimensional figures.

 

Structure and Logic

1: Logic, Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Proof

• Evaluate situations, select problem-solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize their applications. Students describe, explain, and justify their solution processes which may include numbers, words (including mathematical language), pictures, physical objects, or equations. Students use all of these representations as needed. For a particular solution, students should be able to explain or show their work using at least one representation and verify that their answer is reasonable.

1.         Analyze a problem situation to determine the question(s) to be answered.

2.         Identify relevant, missing, and extraneous information related to the solution to a problem.

3.         Select and use one or more strategies to efficiently solve the problem and justify the selection.

4.         Determine whether a problem to be solved is similar to previously solved problems, and identify possible strategies for solving the problem.

5.         Represent a problem situation using any combination of words, numbers, pictures, physical objects, or symbols.

6.         Summarize mathematical information, explain reasoning, and draw conclusions.

7.         Analyze and evaluate whether a solution is reasonable, is mathematically correct, and answers the question.

         8.            Make and test conjectures based on data (or information) collected from explorations and experiments

 

FOURTH GRADE

 

Number Sense and Operations

1: Number Sense

• Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, the relationships among numbers and different number systems.

1.         Read whole numbers in contextual situations.

2.         Identify whole numbers in or out of order.

3.         Write whole numbers in or out of order.

                        4.         State place values for whole numbers (e.g., In the number 203,495 what is the value of the 2?).

               5.      Construct models to represent place value concepts for the one’s, ten’s, hundred’s, and thousand’s places.

  6.         Apply expanded notation to model place value (e.g., 203,495 = 200,000 + 3,000 + 400 + 90 + 5).

            7.         Compare two whole numbers.

            8.         Order three or more whole numbers.

            9.         Make models that represent mixed numbers.
10.       Identify symbols, words, or models that represent mixed numbers.
11.       Use mixed numbers in contextual situations.

            12.       Compare two unit fractions (e.g., ½ to 1/5) or proper or mixed numbers with like

                        denominators.
13.       Order three or more unit fractions or proper or improper fractions with like

                        denominators.
14.       Use decimals in contextual situations.

15.       Compare two decimals.
16.       Order three or more decimals.

17.       Determine the equivalency among decimals, fractions, and percents (e.g., 49/100 = 0.49 = 49%).

18.       Identify all whole-number factors and pairs of factors for a given whole number through 144.

19.       Determine multiples of a given whole number with products through 144.

2: Numerical Operations

• Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another.

1.         Add whole numbers.

            2.         Subtract whole numbers.

               3.      Select the grade-level appropriate operation to solve word problems.
4.         Solve word problems using grade-level appropriate operations and numbers.
5.         Multiply multi-digit numbers by two-digit numbers.

               6.      Divide with one-digit divisors.

            7.         State multiplication and division facts through 12s.

               8.      Demonstrate the associative property of multiplication.
               9.      Apply grade-level appropriate properties to assist in computation.
             10.      Apply the symbol: · and ( ) for multiplication, and <, > .
             11.      Use grade-level appropriate mathematical terminology.
             12.      Add or subtract fractions with like denominators, no regrouping.

13.         Simplify numerical expressions using the order of operations with grade-appropriate operations on number sets.

3: Estimation

• Use estimation strategies reasonably and fluently.

1.         Solve grade-level appropriate problems using estimation.

2.         Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of a calculation (e.g., is 3284 x 343 = 1200 reasonable?).

3.         Estimate length and weight using both U.S. customary and metric units.

4.         Estimate and measure for distance.

 

 Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
1: Data Analysis (Statistics)

• Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data. This is considered to be the analysis and interpretation of numerical data in terms of samples and populations.

1.         Formulate questions to collect data in contextual situations.

2.         Construct a single-bar graph, line graph or two-set Venn diagram with appropriate labels and title from organized data.

            3.         Interpret graphical representations and data displays including single-bar graphs, circle

                        graphs, two-set

                        Venn diagrams, and line graphs that display continuous data.

4.      Answer questions based on graphical representations and data displays including single-

bar graphs, circle graphs, two-set Venn diagrams, and line graphs that display continuous data.

            5.         Identify the mode(s) of given data.

               6.      Formulate predictions from a given set of data.

7.         Solve contextual problems using graphs, charts, and tables.

2:Probability

• Understand and apply the basic concepts of probability. This is the field of mathematics that deals with the likelihood that an event will occur expressed as the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes in the set of outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes.

1.         Name the possible outcomes for a probability experiment.

            2.         Describe the probability of events as being more likely, less likely, equally likely, unlikely,

                        certain, impossible, fair or unfair.

               3.      Predict the outcome of a grade-level appropriate probability experiment.
               4.      Record the data from performing a grade-level appropriate probability experiment.

5.         Compare the outcome of an experiment to predictions made prior to performing the experiment.

6.         Make predictions from the results of student-generated experiments using objects (e.g., coins, spinners and number cubes).

7.         Compare the results of two repetitions of the same grade-level appropriate probability experiment.

3: Discrete Mathematics – Systematic Listing and Counting
• Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes. This field of mathematics is generally referred to as Combinatorics.

1.         Find all possible combinations when 1 item is selected from each of two sets containing up to three objects (e.g., how many outfits can be made with 3 pants and 2 t-shirts?).

Patterns, Algebra and Functions

1: Patterns
• Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically. Students begin with simple repetitive patterns of many iterations. This is the beginning of recursive thinking. Later, students can study sequences that can best be defined and computed using recursion.

 1.        Communicate a grade-level appropriate iterative pattern, using symbols or numbers.

             2.        Extend a grade-level appropriate iterative pattern.
 3.        Create grade-level appropriate iterative patterns.

2:Algebraic Representations
• Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations. Algebraic representation is about abstract structures and about using the principles of those structures in solving problems expressed with symbols.

1.         Evaluate expressions involving the four basic operations by substituting given whole numbers for the variable.

2.         Use variables in contextual situations.

3.         Solve one-step equations with one variable represented by a letter or symbol using multiplication of whole numbers (e.g., 12 = n x 4 ).

 

3: Analysis of Change

• Analyze change in a variable over time and in various contexts such as, qualitative change, quantitative change, and the idea that slope represents the constant rate of change in linear functions, and functions that have non-constant rates of change.

1.         Identify the change in a variable over time (e.g., an object gets taller, colder, heavier, etc.).

2.         Make simple predictions based on a variable (e.g., increase homework time as you progress through the grades).

 

Geometry and Measurement
1: Geometric Properties
• Analyze the attributes and properties of two- and three-dimensional shapes and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships (in conjunction with Strand 5, Concept 2).

 1.        Identify the properties of two-dimensional figures using appropriate terminology.

 2.        Identify models or illustrations of prisms, pyramids, cones, cylinders and spheres.

 3.        Draw points, lines, line segments (open or closed endpoints), rays or angles.

             4.        Classify angles (e.g., right, acute, obtuse, straight).

 5.        Classify triangles as right, acute, or obtuse.

 6.        Identify congruent geometric shapes.

             7.        Identify similar shapes.

             8.        Draw a two-dimensional shape that has line symmetry.

2: Transformation of Shapes

• Apply spatial reasoning to create transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
               1.      Demonstrate translation using geometric figures.

               2.      Identify a tessellation.

3:  Coordinate Geometry

Specify and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems.
        1.       Name the coordinates of a point plotted in the first quadrant.

4:  Measurement - Units of Measure - Geometric Objects
• Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements.

1.                 Identify the appropriate measure of accuracy for the area of an object (e.g., sq. ft. or sq.

miles).

2.                 Compute elapsed time using a clock (e.g., hours and minutes since or until…) or a

calendar (e.g., days, weeks, years since or until…).

 3.        Select an appropriate tool to use in a particular measurement situation.

 4.        Approximate measurements to the appropriate degree of accuracy.

             5.        Compare units of measure to determine more or less relationships including:

• length - yards and miles, meters and  kilometers

• weight - pounds and tons, grams and kilograms

 6.        State equivalent relationships (e.g., 3 teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon, 16 cups = 1 gallon,
2000 pounds = 1 ton).

 7.        Compare the weight of two objects using both U.S. customary and metric units.

 8.        Determine perimeter of simple polygons (e.g., square, rectangle, triangle).

 9.        Determine area of squares and rectangles.

 10.      Differentiate between perimeter and area of quadrilaterals.

 

 Structure and Logic

1:  Algorithms and Algorithmic Thinking

• Use reasoning to solve mathematical problems in contextual situations. Determine step-by-step series of instructions to explain mathematical processes.

1.         Discriminate necessary information from unnecessary information in a given grade-level appropriate word problem.

             2.        Develop an algorithm to calculate perimeter of simple polygons.

 

2:Logic, Reasoning, Arguments, and Mathematical Proof

• Evaluate situations, select problem solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize and describe their applications. Develop mathematical arguments based on induction and deduction, and distinguish between valid and invalid arguments.

1.         Draw a conclusion from a Venn diagram.

2.         Identify simple valid arguments using if…then statements based on graphic organizers (e.g., 2-set Venn diagrams and pictures).

 

 

FIFTH GRADE

 Number Sense and Operations

1: Number Sense

• Understand and apply numbers, ways of representing numbers, the relationships among numbers and different number systems.

      1.         Make models that represent improper fractions.

        2.       Identify symbols, words, or models that represent improper fractions.

      3.         Use improper fractions in contextual situations.

        4.       Compare two proper fractions or improper fractions with like denominators.

5.         Order three or more unit fractions, proper or improper fractions with like denominators or mixed number with like denominators.

6.         Compare two whole numbers, fractions, and decimals (e.g., 1/2 to 0.6).

7.         Order whole numbers, fractions, and decimals.

8.         Determine the equivalency between and among fractions, decimals, and percents in contextual situations.

9.         Identify all whole number factors and pairs of factors for a number.

10.       Recognize that 1 is neither a prime nor a composite number.

11.       Sort whole numbers (through 50) into sets containing only prime numbers or only composite numbers.

2: Numerical Operations

• Understand and apply numerical operations and their relationship to one another.

            1.   Select the grade-level appropriate operation to solve word problems.

      2.  Solve word problems using grade-level appropriate operations and numbers.

                  3.   Multiply whole numbers.

                  4.   Divide with whole numbers.

                  5.   Demonstrate the distributive property of multiplication over addition.

                  6.   Demonstrate the addition and multiplication properties of equality.

      7.   Apply grade-level appropriate properties to assist in computation.

      8.  Apply the symbol “[ ]” to represent grouping.

      9.   Use grade-level appropriate mathematical terminology.

    10.  Simplify fractions to lowest terms.

    11.   Add or subtract proper fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators with  regrouping.

    12.   Add or subtract decimals.

    13.  Multiply decimals.

    14.   Divide decimals.

    15.   Simplify numerical expressions using the order of operations with grade-appropriate operations on number sets.

3:Estimation

• Use estimation strategies reasonably and fluently.

            1.         Solve grade-level appropriate problems using estimation.

               2.      Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of a calculation (e.g., Is 4.1 x 2.7 about 12?).

            3.         Round to estimate quantities.

            4.         Estimate and measure for area and perimeter.

            5.         Compare estimated measurements between U.S. customary and metric systems (e.g., a

                        yard is about a meter).

 

Data Analysis, Probability, and Discrete Mathematics
1:Data Analysis (Statistics)

• Understand and apply data collection, organization, and representation to analyze and sort data. This is considered to be the analysis and interpretation of numerical data in terms of samples and populations.

 1.        Formulate questions to collect data in contextual situations.

 2.        Construct a double-bar graph, line plot, frequency table or three-set Venn diagram with appropriate labels and title from organized data.

 3.        Interpret graphical representations and data displays including bar graphs (including double-bar), circle graphs, frequency tables, three-set Venn diagrams, and line graphs that display continuous data.

4.         Answer questions based on graphical representations and data displays including bar graphs (including double-bar), circle graphs, frequency tables, three-set Venn diagrams, and line graphs that display continuous data.

5.         Identify the mode(s) and mean (average) of given data.

6.         Formulate reasonable predictions from a given set of data.

7.         Compare two sets of data related to the same investigation.
8.         Solve contextual problems using graphs, charts, and tables.

2: Probability

• Understand and apply the basic concepts of probability. This is the field of mathematics that deals with the likelihood that an event will occur expressed as the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes in the set of outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes.

 1.        Name the possible outcomes for a probability experiment.

             2.        Describe the probability of events as being:

• certain (represented by “1”)

• impossible (represented by “0”)

• neither certain nor impossible (represented by a fraction less than 1).

3.         Predict the outcome of a grade-level appropriate probability experiment.

               4.      Record the data from performing a grade-level appropriate probability experiment.

5.         Compare the outcome of an experiment to predictions made prior to performing the experiment.

6.         Make predictions from the results of student-generated experiments using objects (e.g., coins, spinners and number cubes).

7.         Compare the results of two repetitions of the same grade-level appropriate probability

experiment.

3: Discrete Mathematics – Systematic Listing and Counting

• Understand and demonstrate the systematic listing and counting of possible outcomes. This field of mathematics is generally referred to as Combinatorics.

 1.        Find all possible combinations when 1 item is selected from each of 2 sets of different items, using a systematic approach (e.g., shirts: t-shirt, tank top, sweatshirt; pants: shorts, jeans).

 

 Patterns, Algebra and Functions

1:  Patterns

• Identify patterns and apply pattern recognition to reason mathematically. Students begin with simple repetitive patterns of many iterations. This is the beginning of recursive thinking. Later, students can study sequences that can best be defined and computed using recursion.

1.         Communicate a grade-level appropriate iterative pattern, using symbols or numbers.

2.         Extend a grade-level appropriate iterative pattern.

            3.         Solve grade-level appropriate iterative pattern problems.

2:  Algebraic Representations
• Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic representations. Algebraic representation is about abstract structures and about using the principles of those structures in solving problems expressed with symbols.

1.                  Evaluate expressions involving the four basic operations by substituting given decimals

for the variable.

2.         Use variables in contextual situations.

3.         Solve one-step equations with one variable represented by a letter or symbol (e.g., 15 = 45 ÷ n).

3: Analysis of Change

• Analyze change in a variable over time and in various contexts such as, qualitative change, quantitative change, and the idea that slope represents the constant rate of change in linear functions, and functions that have non-constant rates of change.

            1.         Describe patterns of change:

• constant rate (speed of movement of the hands on a clock)

• increasing or decreasing rate (rate of plant growth)

 

Geometry and Measurement
1: Geometric Properties
• Analyze the attributes and properties of two- and three-dimensional shapes and develop mathematical arguments about their relationships (in conjunction with Strand 5, Concept 2).

 1.        Recognize regular polygons.

 2.        Draw two-dimensional figures by applying significant properties of each (e.g., draw a quadrilateral with

two sets of parallel sides and four right angles).

 3.        Sketch prisms, pyramids, cones, and cylinders.

 4.        Identify the properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric figures using

appropriate terminology and vocabulary.

 5.        Draw points, lines line segments, rays, and angles with appropriate labels.

 6.        Recognize that all pairs of vertical angles are congruent.

 7.        Classify triangles as scalene, isosceles, or equilateral.

 8.        Recognize that a circle is a 360º rotation about a point.

 9.        Identify the diameter, radius and circumference of a circle.
10.       Understand that the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180o.

11.       Draw two congruent geometric figures.
12.       Draw two similar geometric figures.
13.       Identify the lines of symmetry in a two-dimensional shape.

 

 

 

1: Transformation of Shapes

• Apply spatial reasoning to create transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
1.         Demonstrate reflections using geometric figures.

2.         Describe the transformations that created a tessellation.

2: Measurement - Units of Measure - Geometric Objects
• Understand and apply appropriate units of measure, measurement techniques, and formulas to determine measurements.

              1.       State an appropriate measure of accuracy for a contextual situation (e.g., “What unit of measurement

                        would you use to measure the top of your desk?”).

2.         Draw two-dimensional figures to specifications using the appropriate tools (e.g., draw a circle with a 2 inch radius).

3.         Determine relationships including volume (e.g., pints and quarts, milliliters and liters).

4.         Convert measurement units to equivalent units within a given system (U.S. customary and metric) (e.g., 12 inches = 1 foot, 10 decimeters = 1 meter).

5.         Solve problems involving perimeter of convex polygons.

6.         Determine the area of figures composed of two or more rectangles on a grid.

            7.         Solve problems involving area of simple polygons.

            8.         Describe the change in perimeter or area when one attribute (length, width) of a

                        rectangle is altered.

 

Structure and Logic

1: Algorithms and Algorithmic Thinking

• Use reasoning to solve mathematical problems in contextual situations. Determine step-by-step series of instructions to explain mathematical processes.

1.         Discriminate necessary information from unnecessary information in a given grade-level appropriate word problem.

2.         Design simple algorithms using whole numbers.

3.         Develop an algorithm or formula to calculate areas of simple polygons.

2: Logic, Reasoning, Arguments, and Mathematical Proof
• Evaluate situations, select problem solving strategies, draw logical conclusions, develop and describe solutions, and recognize and describe their applications. Develop mathematical arguments based on induction and deduction, and distinguish between valid and invalid arguments.

1.         Construct if…then statements.

2.         Identify simple valid arguments using ifthen statements based on graphic organizers (e.g., 3-set Venn diagrams and pictures).

 

 

Science is part of the Mathematical/Logical intelligence according to Howard Gardner. What follows is the science curriculum for students in the grade levels K-5.

 

Inquiry Process

Inquiry Process establishes the basis for students’ learning in science. Students use scientific processes: questioning, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, thinking critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations, and communicating results.

 

History and Nature of Science
Scientific investigation grows from the contributions of many people. History and Nature of Science emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of historical perspectives and the advances that each new development brings to technology and human knowledge. This strand focuses on the human aspects of science and the role that scientists play in the development of various cultures.

 

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives emphasizes developing the ability to design a solution to a problem, to understand the relationship between science and technology, and the ways people are involved in both.  Students understand the impact of science and technology on human activity and the environment.  This strand affords students the opportunity to understand their place in the world – as living creatures, consumers, decision makers, problem solvers, managers, and planners.

 

Life Science
Life Science expands students’ biological understanding of life by focusing on the characteristics of living things, the diversity of life, and how organisms and populations change over time in terms of biological adaptation and genetics.  This understanding includes the relationship of structures to their functions and life cycles, interrelationships of matter and energy in living organisms, and the interactions of living organisms with their environment.

 

Physical Science
Physical Science affords students the opportunity to increase their understanding of the characteristics of objects and materials they encounter daily. Students gain an understanding of the nature of matter and energy, including their forms, the changes they undergo, and their interactions. By studying objects and the forces that act upon them, students develop an understanding of the fundamental laws of motion, knowledge of the various ways energy is stored in a system, and the processes by which energy is transferred between systems and surroundings.

 

Earth and Space Science
Earth and Space Science provides the foundation for students to develop an understanding of the Earth, its history, composition, and formative processes, and an understanding of the solar system and the universe. Students study the regularities of the interrelated systems of the natural world. In doing so, they develop understandings of the basic laws, theories, and models that explain the world (NSES, 1995). By studying the Earth from both a historical and current time frame, students can make informed decisions about issues affecting the planet on which they live.

 

KINDERGARTEN

Inquiry Process

1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses

      • Observe, ask questions, and make predictions.

1.         Observe common objects using multiple senses.

            2.         Ask questions based on experiences with objects, organisms, and events in the

                        environment.
               3.      Predict results of an investigation based on life, physical, and Earth and space sciences

                        (e.g., the five senses, changes in weather).

2: Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling)
      Participate in planning and conducting investigations, and recording data.

1.         Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g., use of instruments, materials, organisms) in       all science inquiry.

               2.           Participate in guided investigations in life, physical, and Earth and space sciences.

3.           Perform simple measurements using non-standard units of measure to collect data.

3: Analysis and Conclusions

      Organize and analyze data; compare to predictions.

1.         Organize (e.g., compare, classify, and sequence) objects, organisms, and events according to various characteristics.  

2.         Compare objects according to their measurable characteristics (e.g., longer/shorter, lighter/heavier).

4: Communication
      Communicate results of investigations.

1.         Communicate observations with pictographs, pictures, models, and/or words.

2.         Communicate with other groups to describe the results of an investigation.

 

History and Nature of Science
1: History of Science as a Human Endeavor

      • Identify individual and cultural contributions to scientific knowledge.

1.         Give examples of how diverse people (e.g., children, parents, cooks, healthcare workers, gardeners) use science in daily life.

2.         Identify how diverse people and/or cultures, past and present, have made important

            contributions to scientific innovations

 

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
1: Science and Technology in Society

• Understand the impact of technology.

1.         Describe how simple tools (e.g., scissors, pencils, paper clips, hammers) can make tasks easier.

 

Life Science
1. Characteristics of Organisms

• Understand that basic structures in plants and animals serve a function.

1.         Distinguish between living things and nonliving things.

2.         Name the following human body parts:

 • head

 • shoulders

 • arms

 • elbows

 • wrists

 • hands

 • fingers

• legs

• hips

• knees

• ankles

• feet

• heels

• toes

3.         Identify the five senses and their related body parts:

                  • sight – eyes

                  • hearing – ears

                  • smell – nose

                  • taste – tongue

• touch – skin

2: Life Cycles

• Understand the life cycles of plants and animals.

              1.       Describe that most plants and animals will grow to physically resemble their parents.

3: Organisms and Environments

• Understand the relationships among various organisms and their environment.

1.         Identify some plants and animals that exist in the local environment.

2.         Identify that plants and animals need the following to grow and survive:
• food
• water
• air
• space

3.         Describe changes observed in a small system (e.g., ant farm, plant terrarium, aquarium).

 

Physical Science
1: Properties of Objects and Materials

• Classify objects and materials by their observable properties.

1.         Identify the following observable properties of objects using the senses:

            • shape

                        • texture

                        • size

                        • color

            2.         Compare objects by the following observable properties:

            • size

                        • color

            • type of material

 

2: Position and Motion of Objects

• Understand spatial relationships and the way objects move.

1.      Describe spatial relationships (i.e., above, below, next to, left, right, middle, center) of objects.

3: Energy and Magnetism

• Investigate different forms of energy.

1.         Investigate how applied forces (push and pull) can make things move.

2.         Investigate how forces can make things move without another thing touching them  

(e.g., magnets, static  electricity).

3.         Sort materials according to whether they are or are not attracted by a magnet.

4.         Identify familiar everyday uses of magnets (e.g., in toys, cabinet locks, decoration).

 

Earth and Space Science
1: Properties of Earth Materials

• Identify the basic properties of Earth materials.

1.         Identify rocks, soil, and water as basic Earth materials.

2.         Compare physical properties (e.g., color, texture, capacity to retain water) of basic Earth

materials.

3.         Classify a variety of objects as being natural or man-made.

4.         Identify ways some natural or man-made materials can be reused or recycled (e.g., efficient use of paper,

2: Changes in the Earth and Sky

• Understand characteristics of weather conditions and climate.

1.         Identify the following aspects of weather:       

• temperature

• wind

• precipitation

• storms

2.         Describe observable changes in weather.

3.         Give examples of how the weather affects people’s daily activities.

 

 

 

 

FIRST GRADE

 

Inquiry Process

1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses

      • Observe, ask questions, and make predictions.

1.         Compare common objects using multiple senses.

            2.         Ask questions based on experiences with objects, organisms, and events in the

                        environment.
               3.      Predict results of an investigation based on life, physical, and Earth and space sciences

                        (e.g., animal life cycles, physical properties, Earth materials).

2: Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling)
      Participate in planning and conducting investigations, and recording data.

1.         Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g., use of instruments, materials, organisms) in all science inquiry.

2.         Participate in guided investigations in life, physical, and Earth and space sciences.

3.         Use simple tools such as rulers, thermometers, magnifiers, and balances to collect data

            (U.S. customary  units).

4.         Record data from guided investigations in an organized and appropriate format (e.g., lab

            book, log, notebook, chart paper).

3: Analysis and Conclusions

      Organize and analyze data; compare to predictions.

1.                  Organize (e.g., compare, classify, and sequence) objects, organisms, and events

according to various characteristics.

2.         Compare the results of the investigation to predictions made prior to the investigation.

4: Communication
      Communicate results of investigations.

1.         Communicate the results of an investigation using pictures, graphs, models, and/or words.

2.         Communicate with other groups to describe the results of an investigation.

 

History and Nature of Science
 1: History of Science as a Human Endeavor

      • Identify individual and cultural contributions to scientific knowledge.

1.         Give examples of how diverse people (e.g., children, parents, weather reporters, cooks, healthcare workers, gardeners) use science in daily life.

2.           Identify how diverse people and/or cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to   scientific innovations

 

3: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
1: Science and Technology in Society

• Understand the impact of technology.

1.         Identify various technologies (e.g., radios) that people use.

       2.        Describe how suitable tools (e.g., magnifiers, thermometers) help make better

                  observations and measurements.

 

Life Science
1: Characteristics of Organisms

• Understand that basic structures in plants and animals serve a function.

 1.        Identify the following characteristics of living things:
                        • growth and development
                        • reproduction
                        • response to stimulus

2.   Compare the following observable features of living things:

            • movement – legs, wings

• protection – skin, feathers, tree bark

• respiration – lungs, gills

• support – plant stems, tree trunks

3.         Identify observable similarities and differences (e.g., number of legs, body coverings, size) between/among different groups of animals.             

2: Life Cycles

• Understand the life cycles of plants and animals.

1.         Identify stages of human life (e.g., infancy, adolescence, adulthood).

               2.      Identify similarities and differences between animals and their parents.

3: Organisms and Environments

• Understand the relationships among various organisms and their environment.

1.         Identify some plants and animals that exist in the local environment.

2.         Compare the habitats (e.g., desert, forest, prairie, water, underground) in which plants and animals live.

3.         Describe how plants and animals within a habitat are dependent on each other.

 

Physical Science
1: Properties of Objects and Materials

• Classify objects and materials by their observable properties.

1.         Classify objects by the following observable properties:

            • shape

                        • texture

                        • size

                        • color
                        • weight

            2.         Classify materials as solids or liquids.

2: Position and Motion of Objects

• Understand spatial relationships and the way objects move.

1.         Demonstrate the various ways that objects can move (e.g., straight line, zigzag, back-and-forth, round-and-round, fast, slow).

 

Earth and Space Science
1: Properties of Earth Materials

• Identify the basic properties of Earth materials.

1.         Describe the following basic Earth materials:
                  • rocks
                  • soil

            • water

2.         Compare the following physical properties of basic Earth materials:

            • color

            • texture

            • capacity to retain water

2.                  Identify common uses (e.g., construction, decoration) of basic Earth materials (i.e.,

rocks, water, soil).

4.         Identify the following as being natural resources:

            • air

            • water

            • soil

            • trees

            • wildlife

5.      Identify ways to conserve natural resources (e.g., reduce, reuse, recycle, find

alternatives).

2: Objects in the Sky

• Identify objects in the sky.

1.                  Identify evidence that the Sun is the natural source of heat and light on the Earth (e.g.,

warm surfaces, shadows, shade).

2.                  Compare celestial objects (e.g., Sun, Moon, stars) and transient objects in the sky (e.g.,

clouds, birds, airplanes).

3.                  Describe observable changes that occur in the sky, (e.g., clouds forming and moving, the

position of the Moon).

3: Changes in the Earth and Sky

• Understand characteristics of weather conditions and climate.

1.         Identify the following characteristics of seasonal weather patterns:         

• temperature

• type of precipitation

• wind

2.         Analyze how the weather affects daily activities.

 

 

SECOND GRADE

 

Inquiry Process

1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses

      • Observe, ask questions, and make predictions.

 1.        Formulate relevant questions about the properties of objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

 2.        Predict the results of an investigation (e.g., in animal life cycles, phases of matter, the water cycle). 

 

2. Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling)
      Participate in planning and conducting investigations, and recording data.

 1.        Demonstrate safe behavior and appropriate procedures (e.g., use of instruments, materials, organisms) in all science inquiry.

 2.        Participate in guided investigations in life, physical, and Earth and space sciences.

 3.        Use simple tools such as rulers, thermometers, magnifiers, and balances to collect data

            (U.S. customary units).

 4.        Record data from guided investigations in an organized and appropriate format (e.g., lab

            book, log, notebook, chart paper).

3. Analysis and Conclusions

      Organize and analyze data; compare to predictions.

 1.        Organize data using graphs (i.e., pictograph, tally chart), tables, and journals.

 2.        Construct reasonable explanations of observations on the basis of data obtained (e.g.,

                        Based on the data does this make sense? Could this really happen?).

 3.        Compare the results of the investigation to predictions made prior to the investigation.

 4.        Generate questions for possible future investigations based on the conclusions of the investigation.

4: Communication
      Communicate results of investigations.

1.                 Communicate the results and conclusions of an investigation (e.g., verbal, drawn, or

written).

History and Nature of Science
1: History of Science as a Human Endeavor

      • Identify individual and cultural contributions to scientific knowledge.

1.         Identify how diverse people and/or cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to  scientific innovations

 2.    Identify science-related career opportunities.

 

2: Nature of Scientific Knowledge

• Understand how science is a process for generating knowledge.

1.         Identify components of familiar systems (e.g., organs of the digestive system, bicycle).

2.         Identify the following characteristics of a system:
• consists of multiple parts or subsystems
• parts work interdependently

3.         Identify parts of a system too small to be seen (e.g., plant and animal cells).

 

 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
1: Science and Technology in Society

• Understand the impact of technology.

1.         Analyze how various technologies impact aspects of people’s lives (e.g., entertainment, medicine,
                  transportation, communication).

2.         Describe important technological contributions made by people, past and present:
• automobile – Henry Ford
• airplane – Wilbur and Orville Wright
• telephone – Alexander G. Bell

3.         Identify a simple problem that could be solved by using a suitable tool.

 

Life Science
1: Characteristics of Organisms

• Understand that basic structures in plants and animals serve a function.

1.                  Identify animal structures that serve different functions (e.g., sensory, defense,

locomotion).

2.         Identify the following major parts of:

            • the digestive system – mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines

• respiratory system – nose, trachea, lungs, diaphragm

• circulatory system – heart, arteries, veins, blood

3.         Describe the basic functions of the following systems:

            • digestive – breakdown and absorption of food, disposal of waste

• respiratory – exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

• circulatory – transportation of nutrients and oxygen throughout the body.        

2: Life Cycles

• Understand the life cycles of plants and animals.

1.         Describe the life cycles of various insects.

2.         Describe the life cycles of various mammals.

3.         Compare the life cycles of various organisms.

 

Physical Science
1: Properties of Objects and Materials

• Classify objects and materials by their observable properties.

1.         Describe objects in terms of measurable properties (e.g., length, volume, weight, temperature) using scientific tools.

2.         Classify materials as solids, liquids, or gases.

3.         Demonstrate that water can exist as a:

            • gas – vapor

                        • liquid – water

                        • solid – ice                          

4.         Demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

 

Earth and Space Science
1. Changes in the Earth and Sky

• Understand characteristics of weather conditions and climate.

1.         Measure weather conditions (e.g., temperature, precipitation).

2.         Record weather conditions (e.g., temperature, precipitation).

3.         Identify the following types of clouds:

• cumulus

• stratus

            • cirrus

4.         Analyze the relationship between clouds, temperature, and weather patterns. 

 

THIRD GRADE

 

Inquiry Process

1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses