on ! Palestine written in 1938
The Jews In
By Mahatma Gandhi
Published in the
have been received by me, asking me to declare my views
about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and the persecution of the
Germany. It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views
this very difficult question.
My sympathies are
all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South
Africa. Some of them became lifelong companions. Through these friends
came to learn much of their age long persecution. They have been the
untouchables of Christianity. The parallel between their treatment by
Christians and the treatment of untouchables by Hindus is very close.
has been invoked in both cases for the justification of
the inhuman treatment meted out to them. Apart from the friendships,
therefore, there is the more common universal reason for my sympathy
the Jews. But my sympathy does not blind me to the requirements of justice.
The cry for the
national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me.
The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which
have hankered after return to Palestine.
Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country
their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood?
Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs
to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose
the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be
justified by any moral code of conduct. The mandates have no sanction
but that of the last war. Surely it would be a crime against humanity
to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews
partly or wholly as their
national home. The nobler course would be to insist on a just treatment
the Jews wherever they are born and bred. The Jews born in France are
French in precisely the same sense that Christians born in France are
If the Jews have
no home but Palestine, will they relish the idea of being
forced to leave the other parts of the world in which they are settled?
Or do they want a double home where they can remain at will? This cry
national home affords a colorable justification for the German expulsion
the Jews. But the German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel
in history. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to
gone. And he is doing it with religious zeal. For, he is propounding
religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which
inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter.
The crime of an
obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his
wholerace with unbelievable ferocity. If there ever could be a justifiable
war in the name of and for humanity, a war against Germany to prevent
wanton persecution of a whole race, would be completely justified. But
not believe in any war. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a
therefore, outside my horizon or province.
But if there can
be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is
being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with
Germany. How can there be alliance between a nation, which claims to
for justice and democracy and one, which is the declared enemy of both?
is England drifting towards armed dictatorship and all it means?
Germany is showing
to the world how efficiently violence can be worked when
it is not hampered by any hypocrisy or weakness masquerading as humanitarianism.It
is also showing how hideous, terrible and terrifying it looks in its
nakedness.Can the Jews resist this organized and shameless persecution?
Is there a way to preserve their self-respect, and not to feel helpless,
neglected and forlorn? I submit there is. No person who has faith in
a living God need feel helpless or forlorn. Jehovah of the Jews is a
God more personal than the God of the Christians, the Mussalmans or
the Hindus, though as a matter of fact, in essence, He is common to
all and one without a second and beyond description. But as the Jews
attribute personality to God and believe that He rules every action
of theirs, they ought not to feel helpless.
If I were a Jew
and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I
would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest gentile German might,
and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse
to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment. And for doing
should not wait for! the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance,
would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow
And now a word to
the Jews in Palestine. I have no doubt that they are going
about it in the wrong way. The Palestine of the Biblical conception
is not a
geographical tract. It is in their hearts. But if they must look to
Palestine of geography as their national home, it is wrong to enter
the shadow of the British gun. A religious act cannot be performed with
aid of the bayonet or the bomb. They can settle in Palestine only by
goodwill of the Arabs. They should seek to convert the Arab heart.
The same God rules
the Arab heart who rules the Jewish heart... They will
find the world opinion in their favor in their religious aspiration.
hundreds of ways of reasoning with the Arabs, if they will only discard
help of the British bayonet. As it is, they are co-sharers with the
British in despoiling a people who have done no wrong to them. I am
defending the Arab excesses. I wish they had chosen the way of non-violence
in resisting what they rightly regarded as an unwarrantable encroachment
upon their country. But according to the accepted canons of right and
nothing can be said against the Arab resistance in the face of
Let the Jews who
claim to be the chosen race prove their title by choosing
the way of non-violence for vindicating their position on earth. Every
country is their home, including Palestine, not by aggression but by
service. A Jewish friend has sent me a book called The Jewish Contribution
to Civilization by Cecil Roth. It gives a record of what the Jews have
to enrich the world's literature, art, music, drama, science, medicine,
agriculture, etc. Given the will, the Jew can refuse to be treated as
outcast of the West, to be despised or patronized. He can command the
attention and respect of the world by being the chosen creation of God,
instead of sinking to the brute who is forsaken by God. They can add
their many contributions the surpassing contribution of non-violent