Communist State As A “Developmental Terrorist”
By Aseem Shrivastava
08 December, 2006
The sorrows of Singur are typical of India’s feudal globalization
“Will I be allowed to harvest
the paddy that is still growing in my field or will the police attack
- Bharati Das, who was brutally assaulted by the West Bengal Police
in her own home last week because she resisted the forced acquisition
of her land by the state for purposes of industrialization, speaking
to the press in New Delhi, December 7, 2006, left hand bandaged and
tears in her eyes.
The iron law of opportunistic pedestrians and motorists applies universally
to political parties and their leaders in “the world’s largest
democracy”. As pedestrians (read: party in opposition) they are
quick to feel the assault on their rights by cars (read: party in power)
clipping past. But when riding in their own fast cars (occupying high
offices themselves), the challenges put to them by the opposition strike
them as “obstacles to development”. The latest instance
of this wonderful democratic practice comes from the state of West Bengal
which has been governed by the Communists (CPI-M) since 1977.
Over the years since the
beginning of economic reforms in India in 1991, few groups have been
as critical of land-grab by governments and corporations in India as
the CPI-M. But now they too seem to have joined the party of globalizing
dreamers of this upstart superpower, all but blind to their naked hypocrisy.
The most recent example of their misplaced zeal for human rights has
been the ban on Rickshaws in Kolkata without arranging for the re-employment
of the people who have lost their livelihoods. The story of Singur is
The siege of Singur:
corporate dictatorship in the countryside
The Singur area is composed
of several villages, adding up to a total population of about 20,000
people in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, less than an hour away
from the metropolis of Kolkata. Three-quarters of the people are literate
(an achievement the Communists can feel proud about in the Indian setting).
1000 acres of prime agricultural land are being acquired by the West
Bengal Industrial Development Corporation and sold cheaply to the Tatas
(of rear-of-the-trucks “OK TATA” fame), one of the oldest
business houses in India and a leading global player in the Indian corporate
landscape. They are planning to use the acquired land to set up a plant
to manufacture a “people’s car”, which is expected
to bring in export earnings too. The $220 million project is claimed
to generate over 10,000 jobs – directly and through secondary
effects – in the future. However, according to the industries
minister Nirupam Sen, the villagers themselves do not have the training
and expertise needed to find employment in the project. Tatas were given
the contract when they threatened to go to some other Indian province
with their capital.
Not surprisingly, Sen is
called jamir dalal (land broker) by the villagers ever since he set
about trying to convince them that it is economically more lucrative
for them to sell their land to the state than to continue to cultivate
it when agriculture is becoming increasingly less “cost-effective”
(the set of national and Western policies that have led us to this point
not being an item of discussion for obvious reasons).
The Communist government’s
decision to acquire the land for the Tatas had already been taken by
this past summer. The process of convincing the local population and
negotiating compensation for them has followed as a fait accompli thereafter,
increasingly the norm in India’s conveniently feudal democracy.
Among the government’s seemingly attractive terms to the villagers
is a land rate which is supposedly 30% above the “market price”
(though it’s unclear how fair a measure that is of a poor family’s
long-term asset like land). Voluntary sales of land have been offered
an additional premium of 10%.
Yet, villagers have been
wise enough to refuse to sell their land in most cases, contrary to
the claims of the state government. Thousands of them have demonstrated
on a number of occasions since June to register their protest. On one
occasion 1000 women spearheaded a rally at the Block Development Officer’s
office. The Durgapur Expressway was blocked one day by farmers wielding
sickles. In May last, a convoy of Tata Officials was blocked by women,
men and children from the local villages. The police had to whisk them
away. When they returned it was under heavy armed escort.
For the past several months
normal village life has been disrupted. A local farmer was killed in
a police assault on a protest demonstration in September. Armed policemen
and security forces continue to patrol the villages in the area, restricting
the free movement of people near their own homes. Children are unable
to play outside, women don’t feel safe bathing in the ponds, nobody
steps out after dark.
A local resistance front,
Krishi Jomi Bachao (Save agricultural land campaign) has been set up
to challenge the assault by the Corporate-Communist state. The most
important local festival Durga Puja was not observed this year. On one
occasion no household in the village cooked for one day to register
their protest. In September, local women farmers, brandishing brooms
and sticks lay on the earth to prevent the police from entering the
area. State absurdity can be judged from the fact that a 2-year-old
girl was charged with rioting.
More recently, after a public
hearing on the whole issue many activists and protesters, including
people like Medha Patkar, have been on indefinite hunger fast while
being under detention by the state government. Two girls, aged 11 and
13, have also been put behind bars by local police authorities. According
to a Bengali human rights activist, every week there are reports of
molestation, rape and murder from the local prison at Chandranagar.
The Tatas prefer
to piggy-back on the rural poor
The Tatas were shown land
at five different sites in the province by the West Bengal government.
Several of these were wastelands where agriculture is not being practiced.
Not coincidentally, they picked prime agricultural land near Kolkata
as their first choice. Why?
As everyone knows, modern
industry requires reliable infrastructure, not something which is India’s
strong point, thanks to the betrayal by the state of one of its key
duties in the midst of the mania for privatization since the 1990s.
The best rural infrastructure (roads, water availability, electricity),
again not surprisingly, is to be found precisely near fertile land because
it has seen public investment in the past in an effort to boost agricultural
Predictably enough, even
the business houses with the best reputation in India (such as Tatas)
prefer the cheap-and-quick option of piggy-backing on the infrastructure
that already exists (and has been assiduously developed over the decades
since India’s independence) for purposes of agriculture to making
complementary investments of their own, which is what choosing wastelands
as industrial sites would entail.
In other words, Indian farmers
are being cheated by the industrial and political elites once again:
far from redeeming their election promises of increasing the volume
of public investment in rural infrastructure, the left-wing allies of
the ruling coalition in New Delhi actually find it within decency to
subsidize industrial development and export-growth in India by transferring
public capital meant for the agricultural poor at a price of Rs.0 to
the industrial elite. That it is a Marxist government which is performing
this act of public charity for the corporate sector adds insult to injury
and leaves the Indian public in some confusion about their radical credentials
and political reliability. Perhaps their Venezuelan friend Hugo Chavez
should be apprised of such shifty loyalties.
Why don’t economists
talk about public goods these days?
Even the most rabid market
fundamentalists in the Economics profession admit that there are at
least three situations when markets can fail terribly. First, when monopoly
power undercuts the force of competition and thus allows high profits
and fails to lower prices for the consumers. Second, when there exist
what are called “externalities”, whereby parties outside
an economic transaction have to bear some costs of the deal that are
not included in the price of the product. (People living near a polluting
factory can suffer ailments without receiving any compensation from
the manufacturer.) Finally, markets fail to provide adequately what
are called “public goods”, such as roads, bridges, energy,
public parks, public health and water supply because the scale of investments
involved is usually too high for private investors and once provided,
many such goods can be used by others without their having paid any
part of the cost of provision. Thus, no one barring the government has
any incentive to provide such services.
As mentioned, even dyed-in-the-wool
laissez faire economists concede that government intervention is imperative
to rescue us from such market failure. However, if one scans the Indian
economic landscape at the moment we notice immediately that such instances
of market failure, far from being the exceptions, are actually the norm.
Many industries are controlled oligopolistically by a few companies
(mobile phones for one). Environmental externalities, whereby the company
at fault pollutes with impunity, abound. And the failure to provide
public goods – infrastructure – is seen even by conservative
economists as a key bottleneck to industrial growth and development.
And yet, the mania for privatization
continues unabated and where possible, as in Singur, the state happily
transfers infrastructure from the hands of the rural powerless to the
urban powerful. Few eyebrows are raised among the ranks of the Economists.
Groups like the Tatas pride
themselves on “corporate social responsibility”. Little
does the public realize how large a lie this is. Even at the beginning
of the day (as Singur demonstrates), let alone at the end, the Tatas
are a profit-seeking concern and behave exactly like Reliance or any
other irresponsible company whose clout overrides all public and social
considerations should they stand in the way of profits and growth.
According to Jamshed Irani,
one of the directors of Tata Sons, it has always been a concern of the
group to “give back to the people what you have earned from them.”
Significantly perhaps, they do not say that they will give back to the
people what they have forcibly acquired from them at throwaway prices
through their access to high places in government.
Portents of the future
The other day this writer
was present at an Amnesty International book release ceremony in New
Delhi where the well-known economist Amit Bhaduri described the increasingly
brazen and widespread practice of the grabbing of land and resources
from the poor by Indian corporations and their representatives in the
Indian state as “developmental terrorism”. This is no hyperbole.
It is merely the most obvious form that India’s feudal globalization
is taking. Between the theft of land from the Narmada tribals since
the 1980s and the shooting down of a dozen people in the process of
Tata’s acquisition of forests from the Kalinganagar tribals in
Orissa in January 2006, there is a cluttered landscape of public crimes
for which every single government of post-reform India, including the
last, BJP-led one and the one controlled by the ruling coalition today,
have to be brought to justice. Singur is only the latest chapter in
this on-going saga of open deceit and corporate graft and greed abetted
by a pliant state.
For the past few months Singur
has turned into a battleground. The lines of confrontation have been
drawn. On one side is the Corporate-Communist state: the Rapid Action
Force has been readied, the West Bengal police is already present (over
6000 policemen). Plain-clothed police informers have been scouring the
area for militants. Even the CPI-M rural cadres have been mobilized
for the now-inevitable confrontation.
They face a determined resistance
of thousands of village women, men and children, supported by human
rights activists, writers and members of the political opposition in
Bengal. Writers like Mahashweta Devi have exposed the “white lies”
of the government.
The West Bengal government
is going in for a series of projects to expand industrial investment
in the state. An anachronistic Land Acquisition Act from the colonial
era (1894) is being deployed here as elsewhere in India to take possession
of land at distress prices. In Bengal the state has already acquired
more than 40000 acres of prime agricultural land and tens of thousands
of acres of other land to enable domestic and international corporate
investment. Some of the key initiatives involve two SEZs near Haldia,
a nuclear plant in East Midnapore, within 10 kilometres of human habitation,
and the introduction of foreign direct investment in real estate through
the aegis of an Indonesian company, Salim. All this is music to the
ears of global finance: according to Goldmann Sachs and Merrill Lynch
India is the last major real estate market in Asia, expected to expand
from $12 billion today to $90 billion in 2015.
The fraud being inflicted
by the West Bengal government on its people in the name of development
can be appreciated from the fact that India is being sold to global
financiers and investors as a real estate market with a sharply rising
curve, even as the industries minister is brazenly advising farmers
that agriculture is no longer profitable in the Bengal countryside and
land has lost its value. Once again, the irony of a communist government
effectively speaking the language of imperial capital should not be
lost. Every million dollars of profit for Tata or Salim or Warburg Pincus
should be read as a thousand poor Indians deprived of their sole means
In the light of all this,
it should surprise no one if the influence of trigger-happy Naxalites
rises steadily in rural India and the stricken women, men and children
of Singur take up arms against the government of the province and the
country. Newsweek reported earlier this year that 20% of India’s
593 districts are being effectively run by the local administration
of Naxalites. The Indian state is conspicuously absent from these spots.
If this proportion rises dramatically in the years to come, we already
know the reason why it will happen. Manmohan’s government cannot
feign innocence of the explanatory facts as they transpire before the
public eye. Large numbers of people evicted from the countryside, and
also unable to find work in the city because of “jobless growth”
in manufacturing and unskilled services are increasingly likely to express
their frustration and trauma through armed resistance. Because the state
and its organs of justice have gone deaf.
As for Singur itself, this
poem is recited in the area and says it all:
“Aj mukhomukhi dariechhe
Ar majhamajhi nei to kichhui hoy
Tatar dalal ar noy to
Ek laruku manush hobi tui.”
“Face to face
stand two groups
There’s nothing in between
Either Tata’s tout or
A fighting human you will be.”
Aseem Shrivastava is an independent writer. He can
be reached at email@example.com
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