Action On Climate Change Is Needed Now - And Here's The Plan
By George Monbiot
It is a testament to the power
of money that Nicholas Stern's report should have swung the argument
for drastic action, even before anyone has finished reading it. He appears
to have demonstrated what many of us suspected: that it would cost much
less to prevent runaway climate change than to seek to live with it.
Useful as this finding is, I hope it doesn't mean that the debate will
now concentrate on money. The principal costs of climate change will
be measured in lives, not pounds. As Stern reminded us yesterday, there
would be a moral imperative to seek to prevent mass death even if the
economic case did not stack up.
But at least almost everyone
now agrees that we must act, if not at the necessary speed. If we're
to have a high chance of preventing global temperatures from rising
by 2C (3.6F) above preindustrial levels, we need, in the rich nations,
a 90% reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2030. The greater part
of the cut has to be made at the beginning of this period. To see why,
picture two graphs with time on the horizontal axis and the rate of
emissions plotted vertically. On one graph the line falls like a ski
jump: a steep drop followed by a shallow tail. On the other it falls
like the trajectory of a bullet. The area under each line represents
the total volume of greenhouse gases produced in that period. They fall
to the same point by the same date, but far more gases have been produced
in the second case, making runaway climate change more likely.
So how do we do it without
bringing civilisation crashing down? Here is a plan for drastic but
affordable action that the government could take. It goes much further
than the proposals discussed by Tony Blair and Gordon Brown yesterday,
for the reason that this is what the science demands.
1. Set a target for reducing
greenhouse-gas emissions based on the latest science. The government
is using outdated figures, aiming for a 60% reduction by 2050. Even
the annual 3% cut proposed in the early day motion calling for a new
climate change bill does not go far enough. Timescale: immediately.
2. Use that target to set
an annual carbon cap, which falls on the ski-jump trajectory. Then use
the cap to set a personal carbon ration. Every citizen is given a free
annual quota of carbon dioxide. He or she spends it by buying gas and
electricity, petrol and train and plane tickets. If they run out, they
must buy the rest from someone who has used less than his or her quota.
This accounts for about 40% of the carbon dioxide we produce. The remainder
is auctioned off to companies. It's a simpler and fairer approach than
either green taxation or the EU's emissions trading scheme, and it also
provides people with a powerful incentive to demand low-carbon technologies.
Timescale: a full scheme in place by January 2009.
3. Introduce a new set of
building regulations, with three objectives. A. Imposing strict energy-efficiency
requirements on all major refurbishments (costing £3,000 or more).
Timescale: in force by June 2007. B. Obliging landlords to bring their
houses up to high energy-efficiency standards before they can rent them
out. Timescale: to cover all new rentals from January 2008. C. Ensuring
that all new homes in the UK are built to the German Passivhaus standard
(which requires no heating system). Timescale: in force by 2012.
4. Ban the sale of incandescent
lightbulbs, patio heaters, garden floodlights and other wasteful and
unnecessary technologies. Introduce a stiff "feebate" system
for all electronic goods sold in the UK, with the least efficient taxed
heavily and the most efficient receiving tax discounts. Every year the
standards in each category rise. Timescale: fully implemented by November
5. Redeploy money now earmarked
for new nuclear missiles towards a massive investment in energy generation
and distribution. Two schemes in particular require government support
to make them commercially viable: very large wind farms, many miles
offshore, connected to the grid with high-voltage direct-current cables;
and a hydrogen pipeline network to take over from the natural gas grid
as the primary means of delivering fuel for home heating. Timescale:
both programmes commence at the end of 2007 and are completed by 2018.
6. Promote the development
of a new national coach network. City-centre coach stations are shut
down and moved to motorway junctions. Urban public transport networks
are extended to meet them. The coaches travel on dedicated lanes and
never leave the motorways. Journeys by public transport then become
as fast as journeys by car, while saving 90% of emissions. It is self-financing,
through the sale of the land now used for coach stations. Timescale:
commences in 2008; completed by 2020.
7. Oblige all chains of filling
stations to supply leasable electric car batteries. This provides electric
cars with unlimited mileage: as the battery runs down, you pull into
a forecourt; a crane lifts it out and drops in a fresh one. The batteries
are charged overnight with surplus electricity from offshore wind farms.
Timescale: fully operational by 2011.
8. Abandon the road-building
and road-widening programme, and spend the money on tackling climate
change. The government has earmarked £11.4bn for road expansion.
It claims to be allocating just £545m a year to "spending
policies that tackle climate change". Timescale: immediately.
9. Freeze and then reduce
UK airport capacity. While capacity remains high there will be constant
upward pressure on any scheme the government introduces to limit flights.
We need a freeze on all new airport construction and the introduction
of a national quota for landing slots, to be reduced by 90% by 2030.
10. Legislate for the closure
of all out-of-town superstores, and their replacement with a warehouse
and delivery system. Shops use a staggering amount of energy (six times
as much electricity per square metre as factories, for example), and
major reductions are hard to achieve: Tesco's "state of the art"
energy-saving store at Diss in Norfolk has managed to cut its energy
use by only 20%. Warehouses containing the same quantity of goods use
roughly 5% of the energy. Out-of-town shops are also hardwired to the
car - delivery vehicles use 70% less fuel. Timescale: fully implemented
These timescales might seem
extraordinarily ambitious. They are, by contrast to the current glacial
pace of change. But when the US entered the second world war it turned
the economy around on a sixpence. Carmakers began producing aircraft
and missiles within a year, and amphibious vehicles in 90 days, from
a standing start. And that was 65 years ago. If we want this to happen,
we can make it happen. It will require more economic intervention than
we are used to, and some pretty brutal emergency planning policies (with
little time or scope for objections). But if you believe that these
are worse than mass death then there is something wrong with your value
Climate change is not just
a moral question: it is the moral question of the 21st century. There
is one position even more morally culpable than denial. That is to accept
that it's happening and that its results will be catastrophic, but to
fail to take the measures needed to prevent it.
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