Chittagong Hill Tracts Of Bangladesh
By A. K. Zaman
16 October, 2007
is the integral part of Bangladesh. Its total area is 5 thousand and
93 square miles. The three hill districts Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachari
cover the one-tenth area of the country. CHTs was under the rule of
Bengal during Mughal dynasty. It was included with East Bengal during
British era and was within East Bengal during Pakistan period. And now
naturally CHTs is the inseparable part of Bangladesh. CHTs was considered
as barren hilly region. Its administrative authority was also under
control of Chittagong during British period though it was upgraded as
a district in 1860.
Once this mountainous land
was a sparsely populated area. Some minority communities like the Lushai
or the Reang temporarily resided in CHTs. Such hunting-loving communities
settled here by means of hunting to earn their livelihood. Occassional
clash took place between these tribals and the British forces as the
dominance of British government was expanding. The British government
brought the Nepalese Gurkhas and the warriors of Assam Rifles to curb
these disturbing tribal elements. Later the Gurkha-originated Ahomias
stayed and settled in the hilly region. Some of them came from the footstep
of the Himalayas via Arakan, somebody came from hilly Tripura, Lushai
and, Chin hill and Arakan region of Myanmar. They took legality of settlement
here by providing cotton as tax. The British government gave them opportunity
to reside and subsequently the tribals of different communities including
Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Lushai those who migrated from Myanmar, Arakan,
Tripura , Lushai hills etc settled there. Later gradually tribal people
of different countries led by their leaders started to infiltrate in
groups in the hilly region.
In 1860, the area was given
the status of a separate district which was under the control of superintendent
of Chittagong. It was done so that the Bengalis and the tribal communities
live in peaceful co-existence in. In order to maintain dominance, leadership
and to gain control as protectorate, the British government enacted
the CHTs Rules Act (Hill Tracts Manual 1900) in 1900, identifying CHTs
as excluded area. Britain introduced the system of king/circle chief
for their own interest. The post of headman/karbari was created to establish
mass communication and to realize tax from the tribal villages. Basically
the nominated representatives were in charge of their respective communities.
According to CHTs Rules Act-1900, people who migrated from Burma, Arakan,
Assam, Tibet and Tripura, and the Bengalis of adjacent districts those
who settled in the hills were recognized as native.
The Hill Tracts Manual which
is hundred years old can not be applicable for a democratic state. Besides,
legal contradiction developed frequently as different unequal laws were
formulated in different times. Different small tribal communities and
Bengalis in large number lived in co-existence in CHTs. None but the
Bengalis are majority community. Such diversified life-style, culture,
harmony, co-existence have created unique atmosphere in our national
arena. Conspiracy has been continuing for a long time to strike on harmony
and peace prevailing in CHTs.
Leadership of some hard-liner
tribal leaders were opposed during partition of India in 1947. Those
so-called leaders continued activities to alienate CHT from the then
East Pakistan. They demanded to merge CHTs with India. The secessionist
activities started from that very period.
The rebels took initiative
to form 'Chakma Land' by establishing Parbattya Janasamiti. In 1973,
Shanti Bahini, the armed wing of Jana Shanghati Shamiti, activated their
efforts to establish 'Chamatri' state ( I.e , Chakma, Marma, Tripura
state). Conspiracy to establish 'Chamatri' state was omitted in the
face of extreme opposition in the eighties. Later conspiracy was hatched
to establish 'Jhumma Land' which is still continuing.
Government took initiative
to quell rebellion as the armed insurgency flared-up in CHT to establish
a separate Jumma Land in the name of right of self-determination. Since
1974, every government took steps to face jungle war to protect common
people from terrorism. About thirty thousand innocent Bengalis and security
forces and more than twelve thousand tribal villagers ware brutally
killed by the armed insurgents of Janashanghati Samiti since 1974 to
2005. The tribal terrorists of Janashanghati Samiti led by Shantu Larma
are involved in criminal activities which include murder, rape, arson,
abduction, realization of ransom, massive toll collection and arms deal.
The tribal terrorists often attack and loot Bengali-inhabited areas.
Even they create anarchy by attacking government installations also.
They are continuing such activities to compel the Bangalis to the leave
the area. Extreme tension and uncertainties gripped CHTs. Law and order
situation deteriorated further due to exposure of fanatic communal attitude
for a long time. Thousands of unarmed tribal families have been victim
of atrocities committed by tribal terrorists.
This trend is still continuing.
Human rights have been violated to a great extent including spread of
communalism in the CHTs area masterminded by Shantu Larma and his JSS.
President Ziaur Rhaman initiated
a new chapter in the hill area by establishing Chittagong Hill Tracts
Development Board in 1976. He formed tribal convention in 1978 to start
dialogue with tribal insurgent leaders. Regimes in different times continued
meeting and dialogue with tribal leaders. The previous government took
efforts to bring the rebels back to normal life since 1980 to 1989.
During the tenure of Ershad regime in 1989, Local Government Council
Act-1989 was pmulgated in three hill districts to ensure the return
of the rebels back to normal life and to establish a terror-free CHTs.
Extensive administrative power of the hill districts were handed-over
to tribals in district level which is similar to limited autonomy. Yet
the rebels did not shun the path of terror. On the other hand the Bangalis
have been turned into second class citizen by enacting this Act.
Fresh dialogue restarted
in 1992. This talk continued upto 1995 to solve the problem. On 02 December,
1997 the then Awami League government signed a treaty bypassing the
opinions of Parliament and the minority communities including the Bengalis.
Extreme opposition was observed against this discriminatory accord.
The Bengalis and all the tribal communities except the Chakmas demanded
the repeal the black treaty. They forged a intense movement against
The then opposition leader Begum Khaleda Zia went to Khagrachari leading
a long march expressing solidarity with the movement. She declared to
amend the anti-constitutional clauses of the treaty if voted to power.
Besides an organization of the tribals named United Peoples Democratic
Front (UPDF) was constituted in 1997 opposing the peace treaty.
By signing treaty Shantu
Larma alongwith the activists of Janashanghati Samity pledged to establish
peace They surrendered arms and took over the responsibility of Regional
Council. In 1998, government nominated Shantu Larma as the chairman
of Regional Council. The post is equivalent to the status of state minister.
It is a grim reality that he and his associates being the part of the
government and enjoying all facilities provided by state have been instigating
anti-treaty activities. They are hatching conspiracy by disseminating
confusing information at home and abroad in order to create embarrassing
situation for the country. Armed groups have been reorganized with the
help of remaining terrorists.
From time immemorial, the
majority Bengalis living in CHTs including a number of small tribal
communities are facing serious problem in terms of right of franchise,
human rights, land rights and economic rights due to discriminatory
peace treaty which is contradictory to constitution. The hill Bengalis
and minority tribal communities are badly ffected due to the treaty.
The present government is keeping mum conveniently forgetting their
previous election pledge that if voted to power they would scrap or
amend the treaty.
In order to implement the
discriminatory peace treaty, Shantu Larma is creating anarchy in the
pretext of movement. He is tarnishing the image of Bangladesh by disseminating
confusing and false information to different countries and donor communities.
He is demanding the withdrawal of the army with a view to establish
Jummaland by seceding CHTs from Bangladesh. But the common tribals are
not in favour of this trend. They can not raise their voice due to intimidation
of the armed tribals.
Contradiction between Treaty
The peace treaty is formulated
by changing, amending, linking and deleting different clauses of Hill
District Local Government Council Act-1989. Terming the Bengalis as
non-tribals in the treaty i mentioned that the person who has a piece
of valid land and live in a specific address will be considered as non-tribal
dweller of CHTs. If any Bengali fails to meet the criteria, he will
not be considered as permanent resident of CHTs. If it is so, the person
who has been living successively for years together, he will not be
able to be a permanent resident of CHT. Is CHT a constitutionally-excluded
area or any other country? The constitutional rights of the hill Bengalis
have been lessened and opportunity has been created for illegal migration
of the tribals from neighbouring countries.
According to constitutional
Law, the terms of eligibility of being a voter: If he is a citizen of
Bangladesh, age not below 18 years, declared not abnormal by any court,
deserves the right to be a voter. Additional terms and conditions have
been incorporated besides the existing clauses of the constitution to
be the voter of the CHTs area according to clause 17 of peace treaty.
A Bengali will have to be a permanent dweller if he intends to be a
voter. Such clauses are not applicable for remaining districts of the
country. By amending clause 64 of Parbattya Districts Local Government
Council Act, it has been incorporated in the peace treaty of 1997 under
clause 26.-"Without prior approval of District Council, any piece
of land including land held in demesne (Khas Land) under Jurisdiction
of settlement of CHTs area, will not be allowed for leasing, settlement,
purchasing, selling or handing over land will not be allowed . Any land,
hill and forest area which is under control and purview of Hill District
Council, will not be handed over by the government without discussion
and consent. Now the question arises, is the land management of CHTs
beyond the control of the state? Constitution does not support this.
Common people have been deprived
of purchasing and sale of personal property, mutation, right of having
settling of land misusing the clause of the treaty.
To rehabilitate the activists
of JSS and those who took shelter as refugees in India due to volatile
situation of CHTs, to ensure the land-ownership of the landless or land-owner
tribal people those who possess less than two acres of land, to write
off the debts of the tribal refugees to those who have taken loans from
government organizations but failed to repay or utilized the borrowed
money due to confronting situation. To continue quota system in government
service and educational institutions for tribals, to exempt the bank
loans of the indebted JSS activists, to appoint the tribals for the
post of officers at all levels and different classes of employees in
various govt, semi-govt and autonomous establishments on priority basis
to give priority for the activists of JSS or their dependents.
It has been enunciated in
the preface of peace treaty - "To uphold political, social, cultural,
educational and economic rights and to expedite the socio-economic upliftment
process for all citizens of CHTs area in maintaining total and unflinching
loyalty of the territorial sovereignty and integrity of Bangladesh under
purview of the constitution of peoples' republic of Bangladesh. And
in order to preserve and promote equal rights for all citizens of Bangladesh,
national committee on behalf of Bangladesh government and Parbattya
Chattagram Janashanghati Shamity on behalf of the inhabitants of CHTs
area reached to formulate a treaty containing four volumes which is
Though it is enunciated in
the preface of peace treaty for providing all facilities and protection
of right for the citizens of CHTs, which is enshrined in the jurisdiction
of constitution, but the sub-clauses of peace treaty is totally contradictory.
It is natural to raise question regarding peoples' confidence of the
treaty. Parbattya Chattagram Janashanghati Samity does not represent
the people of CHTs. They did not have any mandate to preserve the right
of all the people. Besides, JSS leader Shantu Larma does not represent
all the tribal communities and hill Bengalis. He is not an elected peoples'
representative. That is why no community gave him mandate in signing
the treaty. No provision was maintained for the presence of peoples'
representative and the representative of hill Bengalis during signing
of the treaty.
Peace treaty is contrary
to uni-centric spirit of state which is enshrined in the constitution.
The deprivation of the Bengalis has been increased intolerably due to
signing of the peace treaty.
Dissenting opinions were
observed among tribal communities immediately after signing the peace
accord in 1997. Proshit Bikash Khisa emerged as UPDF leader challenging
the leadership of Shantu Larma, the JSS leader. JSS started its destructive
activities to uproot the very existence of UPDF. As a result, both the
tribal organizations are now engaged in armed clash. Dominance of the
concerned groups are noticed in different areas of the three hill districts.
Incidents related to attack, counter-attack, abduction, toll-collection,
murder are going on. Common people have become hostage to their mercy.
The aim of JSS and UPDF is
similar though different outlook in organizational and leadership perspective.
Both the outfits are making negative propaganda at home and abroad.
They are publicizing false information in the websites. But the truth
is that massive development activities have been executed for the improvement
of the hilly people. Different overseas organizations are also continuing
We opine that government
and the conscious citizens of the country, intellectuals, journalists,
politicians irrespective of all concerned need to play an active role
from their respective position in order to stand against all sorts of
conspiracies. The people of CHT want to get rid of all discriminatory
laws. They want guarantee for execution of constitutional rights, human
rights, suffrage and equal right. Growing up in the light and air of
same environment, the hill Bengalis want balanced development, equal
recognition and right too.
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